Understanding Changes In Poverty

Author: Gabriela Inchauste
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464803005
Size: 46.55 MB
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Understanding Changes In Poverty from the Author: Gabriela Inchauste. The 2015 Millennium Development Goal to cut in half the share of the world’s population living in extreme poverty was met with time to spare. By 2013, the percentage of developing-country populations living in extreme poverty decreased from 43 percent in 1990 to 21 percent by 2010. Clearly, there is still a long way to go, with 1.2 billion people without enough to eat. What can we learn from the recent success? This volume presents recent methods to decompose the contributions to poverty reduction. What was the main contributor to poverty reduction? Using a simple accounting approach, we find that labor income growth was the largest contributor to moderate poverty reduction for a group of 21 countries with substantial reductions in poverty over the past decade. Moreover, in most cases, it was the growth in income per worker that contributed the most to poverty reduction, rather than an increase in employment. Changes in demographics, public transfers and remittances helped, but made relatively smaller contributions to poverty reduction. Public transfers were important in reducing extreme poverty, pointing to the crucial role of social protection systems. How was labor income growth able to reduce poverty? After a review of the literature, a structural decomposition method is presented and implemented in three countries. The results show that that labor income grew mainly because of higher returns to human capital endowments. This could signal increases in productivity, a higher relative price of labor, or both. In Bangladesh and Peru, this was driven by higher returns to workers with low levels of education, which may have partly been driven by higher food prices. In contrast, in Thailand, poverty fell partly due to increasing returns to education.

Understanding Poverty

Author: Sheldon DANZIGER
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674030176
Size: 78.29 MB
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Understanding Poverty from the Author: Sheldon DANZIGER. In spite of an unprecedented period of growth and prosperity, the poverty rate in the United States remains high relative to the levels of the early 1970s and relative to those in many industrialized countries today. Understanding Poverty brings the problem of poverty in America to the fore, focusing on its nature and extent at the dawn of the twenty-first century.

Understanding The Poverty Impact Of The Global Financial Crisis In Latin America And The Caribbean

Author: Margaret Grosh
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464802432
Size: 77.78 MB
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Understanding The Poverty Impact Of The Global Financial Crisis In Latin America And The Caribbean from the Author: Margaret Grosh. Using data from household and labor force surveys, this study documents the effects of the 2008–09 global financial crisis on poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean, the social protection policy responses activated, and a macro-micro modeling of crisis/no-crisis scenarios for Mexico and Brazil.

The Oxford Handbook Of The Economics Of Poverty

Author: Philip N. Jefferson
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195393783
Size: 73.63 MB
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The Oxford Handbook Of The Economics Of Poverty from the Author: Philip N. Jefferson. This Handbook examines poverty measurement, anti-poverty policy and programs, and poverty theory from the perspective of economics. It is written in a highly accessible style that encourages critical thinking about poverty. What's known about the sources of poverty and its alleviation are summarized and conventional thinking about poverty is challenged.

When Is Growth Pro Poor Cross Country Evidence

Author: Aart Kraay
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1451893841
Size: 59.55 MB
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When Is Growth Pro Poor Cross Country Evidence from the Author: Aart Kraay. Growth is pro-poor if the poverty measure of interest falls. This implies three potential sources of pro-poor growth: (a) a high rate of growth of average incomes; (b) a high sensitivity of poverty to growth in average incomes; and (c) a poverty-reducing pattern of growth in relative incomes. I empirically decompose changes in poverty in a large sample of developing countries into these components. In the medium run, most of the variation in changes in poverty is due to growth, suggesting that policies and institutions that promote broad-based growth should be central to pro-poor growth. Most of the remainder is due to poverty-reducing patterns of growth in relative incomes, rather than differences in the sensitivity of poverty to growth in average incomes. Cross-country evidence provides little guidance on policies and institutions that promote these other sources of pro-poor growth.

Pathways Out Of Poverty

Author: Gary S. Fields
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821354049
Size: 55.97 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Pathways Out Of Poverty from the Author: Gary S. Fields. How private firms contribute to economic mobility and poverty reduction and what governments can do to enhance their contributions is the theme of this book. The positive role (often underemphasized) the private sector plays in economic development is looked at. Also the labour market and how various mechanisms in the economy interact to affect conditions for people as workers and as consumers. The links among the business environment, private sector development, economic growth, poverty reduction and economic mobility are also examined.

Understanding Changes In Time

Author: Jacques Montangero University of Geneva Switzerland
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135742723
Size: 47.59 MB
Format: PDF
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Understanding Changes In Time from the Author: Jacques Montangero University of Geneva Switzerland. This text provides an analysis of how children come to be able to understand the dynamic nature of causality - how processes take place through time. The author studies the capabilities and limitations of 7-12 year old children in order to assess their conception of evolutionary processes. His study follows on from Piaget's work on causality, and is intended to contribute to the literature on "theory of mind" and children's scientific development. The book draws on experimental studies of diachronic thinking in children and adults, and discusses the importance of a well-developed diachronic perspective for cognition.

Structural Change And Poverty Reduction In Brazil

Author: Maurizio Bussolo
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Size: 30.18 MB
Format: PDF
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Structural Change And Poverty Reduction In Brazil from the Author: Maurizio Bussolo. Over the medium time horizon, skill upgrading, differentials in sectoral technological progress, and migration of labor out of farming activities are some of the major structural adjustment factors shaping the evolution of an economy and its connected poverty trends. The main focus of the authors is understanding, for the case of Brazil, how a trade shock interacts with these structural forces and ascertaining whether it enhances or hinders medium-term poverty reduction. In particular, they consider the interactions between the migration of labor out of agriculture, a potentially important poverty reduction factor, and trade liberalization, which increases the price incentives to stay in agriculture. A recursive-dynamic computable general equilibrium model simulates Doha scenarios and compares them against a business as usual scenario. The authors estimate the poverty effects using a microsimulation model that primarily takes into account individuals' labor supply decisions. Their analysis shows that trade liberalization does contribute to structural poverty reduction. But unless increased productivity and stronger growth rates are attributed to trade reform, its contribution to medium-term poverty reduction is rather small.