Understanding Changes In Poverty

Author: Gabriela Inchauste
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464803005
Size: 35.49 MB
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Understanding Changes In Poverty from the Author: Gabriela Inchauste. The 2015 Millennium Development Goal to cut in half the share of the world’s population living in extreme poverty was met with time to spare. By 2013, the percentage of developing-country populations living in extreme poverty decreased from 43 percent in 1990 to 21 percent by 2010. Clearly, there is still a long way to go, with 1.2 billion people without enough to eat. What can we learn from the recent success? This volume presents recent methods to decompose the contributions to poverty reduction. What was the main contributor to poverty reduction? Using a simple accounting approach, we find that labor income growth was the largest contributor to moderate poverty reduction for a group of 21 countries with substantial reductions in poverty over the past decade. Moreover, in most cases, it was the growth in income per worker that contributed the most to poverty reduction, rather than an increase in employment. Changes in demographics, public transfers and remittances helped, but made relatively smaller contributions to poverty reduction. Public transfers were important in reducing extreme poverty, pointing to the crucial role of social protection systems. How was labor income growth able to reduce poverty? After a review of the literature, a structural decomposition method is presented and implemented in three countries. The results show that that labor income grew mainly because of higher returns to human capital endowments. This could signal increases in productivity, a higher relative price of labor, or both. In Bangladesh and Peru, this was driven by higher returns to workers with low levels of education, which may have partly been driven by higher food prices. In contrast, in Thailand, poverty fell partly due to increasing returns to education.

Understanding Changes In Time

Author: Jacques Montangero University of Geneva Switzerland
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135742723
Size: 58.33 MB
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Understanding Changes In Time from the Author: Jacques Montangero University of Geneva Switzerland. This text provides an analysis of how children come to be able to understand the dynamic nature of causality - how processes take place through time. The author studies the capabilities and limitations of 7-12 year old children in order to assess their conception of evolutionary processes. His study follows on from Piaget's work on causality, and is intended to contribute to the literature on "theory of mind" and children's scientific development. The book draws on experimental studies of diachronic thinking in children and adults, and discusses the importance of a well-developed diachronic perspective for cognition.

Pathways Out Of Poverty

Author: Gary S. Fields
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821354049
Size: 74.72 MB
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Pathways Out Of Poverty from the Author: Gary S. Fields. How private firms contribute to economic mobility and poverty reduction and what governments can do to enhance their contributions is the theme of this book. The positive role (often underemphasized) the private sector plays in economic development is looked at. Also the labour market and how various mechanisms in the economy interact to affect conditions for people as workers and as consumers. The links among the business environment, private sector development, economic growth, poverty reduction and economic mobility are also examined.

A New Understanding Of Poverty

Author: Kristian Niemietz
Publisher: Inst of Economic Affairs
ISBN: 9780255366380
Size: 65.69 MB
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A New Understanding Of Poverty from the Author: Kristian Niemietz. In recent years, poverty has generally been understood in "relative" terms. That is, people are regarded as poor if they earn less than some benchmark relative to average earnings. The policy response of income transfers, which are used to address the perceived problem of relative poverty, has often led to serious problems that actually reduce long-term opportunities for poorer people. The author proposes an entirely new way of measuring poverty. If this measure were applied, public policy would orientate itself towards creating the conditions that allowed the poor to become better off. This monograph is essential reading for all involved in the poverty debate. Its approach to the measurement of poverty and its policy conclusion are original and soundly based on evidence.


Author: Uner Kirdar
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814746707
Size: 46.50 MB
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People from the Author: Uner Kirdar. People: From Impoverishment to Empowerment examines the large, unfinished agenda of human deprivation at the turn of the century. Social problems are rampant in almost every country. Global poverty is worsening, employment is on the rise, and social disintegration is becoming an ill that plagues us all. This remarkable book assembles the thinking of more than 50 distinguished national and international policymakers, practitioners, academics, leaders of public and private enterprises, and the media. It deals with the important question of how to empower people in order to foster an environment of peace, prosperity, and social harmony.

Understanding Poverty

Author: Sheldon Danziger
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674008762
Size: 64.93 MB
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Understanding Poverty from the Author: Sheldon Danziger. In spite of an unprecedented period of growth and prosperity, the poverty rate in the United States remains high relative to the levels of the early 1970s and relative to those in many industrialized countries today. Understanding Poverty brings the problem of poverty in America to the fore, focusing on its nature and extent at the dawn of the twenty-first century.

Understanding Mainland Puerto Rican Poverty

Author: Susan S. Baker
ISBN: 9781566399692
Size: 68.96 MB
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Understanding Mainland Puerto Rican Poverty from the Author: Susan S. Baker. For too long the study of impoverished Puerto Ricans living in the fifty states has been undermined by the use of broad generalizations. Puerto Ricans have been statistically grouped with all Latinos, studied with models developed for understanding African-American life, and written about as if New York's Puerto Rican community was the only such community worthy of detailed study. This book changes all that. In this important new work, Susan Baker looks beyond the traditional models and rewrites the origins, current state, and reasons behind Puerto Rican poverty.The book tells the story of how Puerto Ricans have left the Rustbelt cities to return to the island or to seek job opportunities elsewhere. Those left behind are predominantly poor women with dependents who live in segregated neighborhoods with little chance of finding low-skilled jobs because of competition from non-citizen, non-politicized workers.In her alternative explanation, the author presents data from across the country and puts forth an explanation that is grounded in Puerto Rican history and sensitive not only to the interconnectedness of the island and mainland population, but also the increasing distress faced by Puerto Rican women and the sad truth that Puerto Rican citizenship in this country is a second class one. Author note: Susan S. Baker is Assistant Practical Theology Coordinator and Instructor at Westminster Theological Seminary.