Understanding Changes In Poverty

Author: Gabriela Inchauste
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464803005
Size: 32.82 MB
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Understanding Changes In Poverty from the Author: Gabriela Inchauste. The 2015 Millennium Development Goal to cut in half the share of the world’s population living in extreme poverty was met with time to spare. By 2013, the percentage of developing-country populations living in extreme poverty decreased from 43 percent in 1990 to 21 percent by 2010. Clearly, there is still a long way to go, with 1.2 billion people without enough to eat. What can we learn from the recent success? This volume presents recent methods to decompose the contributions to poverty reduction. What was the main contributor to poverty reduction? Using a simple accounting approach, we find that labor income growth was the largest contributor to moderate poverty reduction for a group of 21 countries with substantial reductions in poverty over the past decade. Moreover, in most cases, it was the growth in income per worker that contributed the most to poverty reduction, rather than an increase in employment. Changes in demographics, public transfers and remittances helped, but made relatively smaller contributions to poverty reduction. Public transfers were important in reducing extreme poverty, pointing to the crucial role of social protection systems. How was labor income growth able to reduce poverty? After a review of the literature, a structural decomposition method is presented and implemented in three countries. The results show that that labor income grew mainly because of higher returns to human capital endowments. This could signal increases in productivity, a higher relative price of labor, or both. In Bangladesh and Peru, this was driven by higher returns to workers with low levels of education, which may have partly been driven by higher food prices. In contrast, in Thailand, poverty fell partly due to increasing returns to education.

Understanding The Poverty Impact Of The Global Financial Crisis In Latin America And The Caribbean

Author: Margaret Grosh
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464802432
Size: 50.57 MB
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Understanding The Poverty Impact Of The Global Financial Crisis In Latin America And The Caribbean from the Author: Margaret Grosh. Using data from household and labor force surveys, this study documents the effects of the 2008–09 global financial crisis on poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean, the social protection policy responses activated, and a macro-micro modeling of crisis/no-crisis scenarios for Mexico and Brazil.

When Is Growth Pro Poor Cross Country Evidence

Author: Aart Kraay
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1451893841
Size: 13.38 MB
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When Is Growth Pro Poor Cross Country Evidence from the Author: Aart Kraay. Growth is pro-poor if the poverty measure of interest falls. This implies three potential sources of pro-poor growth: (a) a high rate of growth of average incomes; (b) a high sensitivity of poverty to growth in average incomes; and (c) a poverty-reducing pattern of growth in relative incomes. I empirically decompose changes in poverty in a large sample of developing countries into these components. In the medium run, most of the variation in changes in poverty is due to growth, suggesting that policies and institutions that promote broad-based growth should be central to pro-poor growth. Most of the remainder is due to poverty-reducing patterns of growth in relative incomes, rather than differences in the sensitivity of poverty to growth in average incomes. Cross-country evidence provides little guidance on policies and institutions that promote these other sources of pro-poor growth.

Understanding Poverty

Author: Sheldon DANZIGER
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674030176
Size: 27.76 MB
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Understanding Poverty from the Author: Sheldon DANZIGER. In spite of an unprecedented period of growth and prosperity, the poverty rate in the United States remains high relative to the levels of the early 1970s and relative to those in many industrialized countries today. Understanding Poverty brings the problem of poverty in America to the fore, focusing on its nature and extent at the dawn of the twenty-first century.

The Last Mile In Ending Extreme Poverty

Author: Laurence Chandy
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 0815726341
Size: 58.53 MB
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The Last Mile In Ending Extreme Poverty from the Author: Laurence Chandy. Viewed from a global scale, steady progress has been made in reducing extreme poverty—defined by the $1.25-a-day poverty line—over the past three decades. This success has sparked renewed enthusiasm about the possibility of eradicating extreme poverty within a generation. However, progress is expected to become more difficult, and slower, over time. This book will examine three central changes that need to be overcome in traveling the last mile: breaking cycles of conflict, supporting inclusive growth, and managing shocks and risks. By uncovering new evidence and identifying new ideas and solutions for spurring peace, jobs, and resilience in poor countries, The Last Mile in Ending Extreme Poverty will outline an agenda to inform poverty reduction strategies for governments, donors, charities, and foundations around the world. Contents Part I: Peace: Breaking the Cycle of Conflict External finance for state and peace building, Marcus Manuel and Alistair McKechnie, Overseas Development Institute Reforming international cooperation to improve the sustainability of peace, Bruce Jones, Brookings and New York University Bridging state and local communities through livelihood improvements, Ryutaro Murotani, JICA, and Yoichi Mine, JICA-RI and Doshisha University Postconflict trajectories and the potential for poverty reduction, Gary Milante, SIPRI Part II: Jobs: Supporting Inclusive Growth Structural change and Africa's poverty puzzle, John Page, Brookings Public goods for private jobs: lessons from the Pacific, Shane Evans, Michael Carnahan and Alice Steele, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Government of Australia Strategies for inclusive development in agrarian Sub-Saharan countries, Akio Hosono, JICA-RI The role of agriculture in poverty reduction, John McArthur, Brookings, UN Foundation, and Fung Global Institute Part III: Resilience: Managing Shocks and Risks Environmental stress and conflict, Stephen Smith, George Washington University and Brookings Toward community resilience: The role of social capital after disasters, Go Shimada, JICA-RI Social protection and the end of extreme poverty, Raj Desai, Georgetown University and Brookings

Understanding And Reducing Persistent Poverty In Africa

Author: Christopher B. Barrett
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317997476
Size: 34.27 MB
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Understanding And Reducing Persistent Poverty In Africa from the Author: Christopher B. Barrett. Prior work has shown that there is a significant amount of turnover amongst the African poor as households exit and enter poverty. Some of this mobility can be attributed to regular movement back and forth in response to exogenous variability in climate, prices, health, etc. ('churning'). Other crossings of the poverty line reflect permanent shifts in long-term well-being associated with gains or losses of productive assets or permanent changes in asset productivity due, for example, to adoption of improved technologies or access to new, higher-value markets. Distinguishing true structural mobility from simple churning is important because it clarifies the factors that facilitate such important structural change. Conversely, it also helps identify the constraints that may leave other households caught in a trap of persistent, structural poverty. The papers in this book help to distinguish the types of poverty and to deepen understanding of the structural features and constraints that create poverty traps. Such an understanding allows communities, local governments and donors to take proactive, effective steps to combat persistent poverty in Africa. This book was previously published as a special issue of the Journal of Development Studies.

Understanding World Order And Structural Change

Author: H. Abrahamsson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1403944059
Size: 76.78 MB
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Understanding World Order And Structural Change from the Author: H. Abrahamsson. Hans Abrahamsson assesses the current world order and structural change, within an historical framework. He analyzes the interaction of Pax American and the Bretton Woods system in the postwar period, and its impact, specifically on the development of Southern Africa. The author also proposed an analytical model and a methodological framework for the study of the international political economy and its global and local implications. Finally, he addresses the circumstances behind the current opportunity for global change, and the social forces and political action required in order to seize it.