The Problem Of The Essential Indexical

Author: John Perry
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195364156
Size: 14.60 MB
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The Problem Of The Essential Indexical from the Author: John Perry. A collection of twelve essays by John Perry and two essays he co-authored, this book deals with various problems related to "self-locating beliefs": the sorts of beliefs one expresses with indexicals and demonstratives, like "I" and "this." Postscripts have been added to a number of the essays discussing criticisms by authors such as Gareth Evans and Robert Stalnaker. Included with such well-known essays as "Frege on Demonstratives," "The Problem of the Essential Indexical," "From Worlds to Situations," and "The Prince and the Phone Booth" are a number of important essays that have been less accessible and that discuss important aspects of Perry's views, referred to as "Critical Referentialism," on the philosophy of language and the philosophy of mind.

Foundations For Moral Relativism

Author: J. David Velleman
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
ISBN: 1783740329
Size: 27.98 MB
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Foundations For Moral Relativism from the Author: J. David Velleman. In this new edition of Foundations for Moral Relativism a distinguished moral philosopher tames a bugbear of current debate about cultural difference. J. David Velleman shows that different communities can indeed be subject to incompatible moralities, because their local mores are rationally binding. At the same time, he explains why the mores of different communities, even when incompatible, are still variations on the same moral themes. The book thus maps out a universe of many moral worlds without, as Velleman puts it, "moral black holesā€. The six self-standing chapters discuss such diverse topics as online avatars and virtual worlds, lying in Russian and truth-telling in Quechua, the pleasure of solitude and the fear of absurdity. Accessibly written, this book presupposes no prior training in philosophy.

Mental Files In Flux

Author: FranƧois Recanati
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019879035X
Size: 11.44 MB
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Mental Files In Flux from the Author: FranƧois Recanati. Francois Recanati has pioneered the "mental file" framework for thinking about concepts and how we refer to the world in thought and language. Mental files are based on "epistemically rewarding" relations to objects in the environment. Standing in such relations to objects puts the subject in a position to gain information regarding them. The information thus gained goes into the file based on the relevant relation. Files do not merelystore information about objects, however, they refer to them and serve as singular terms in the language of thought, with a relational (nondescriptivist) semantics. In this framework, the reference of linguistic expressions is inherited from that of the files we associate with them. Crucially, filesalso play the role of "modes of presentation". They are used to account for cognitive significance phenomena illustrated by so-called "Frege cases".In this new volume, Recanati considers what happens to mental files in a dynamic setting. Mental files are construed as both continuants (dynamic files) and as time-slices thereof (static files). Dynamic files are needed to account for confusion, recognition and tracking. Mental Files in Fluxconsiders what happens to the relation of coreference de jure, central to the functional characterization of files, when one adopts a dynamic perspective. Only a weak form of coreference de jure is said to hold between stages of the same dynamic file. The second part of the book argues thatcommunication involves interpersonal dynamic files. Special attention is paid to the communication of indexical thoughts (de se contents) and communication using proper names.

About Oneself

Author: Manuel GarcĆ­a-Carpintero
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191022233
Size: 42.40 MB
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About Oneself from the Author: Manuel GarcĆ­a-Carpintero. This volume addresses foundational issues concerning the nature of first-personal, or de se, thought and how such thoughts are communicated. One of the questions addressed is whether there is anything distinctive about first-person thought or whether it can be subsumed under broader phenomena. Many have held that first-person thought motivates a revision of traditional accounts of content or motivates positing special ways of accessing such contents. Gottlob Frege famously held that first-person thoughts involve a subject being 'presented to himself in a particular and primitive way, in which he is presented to no-one else.' However, as Frege also noted, this raises many puzzling questions when we consider how we are able to communicate such thoughts. Is there indeed something special about first-person thought such that it requires a primitive mode of presentation that cannot be grasped by others? If there really is something special about first-person thought, what happens when I communicate this thought to you? Do you come to believe the very thing that I believe? Or is my first-person belief only entertained by me? If it is only entertained by me, how does it relate to what you come to believe? It is these questions that the volume addresses and seeks to answer.

Casta Eda And His Guises

Author: Adriano Palma
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 1614516634
Size: 79.60 MB
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Casta Eda And His Guises from the Author: Adriano Palma. This volume responds to and reassesses the work of Hector-Neri CastaƱeda (1924-1991). The essays collected here, written by his students, followers, and opponents, examine CastaƱedaā€™s seminal views on deontic logic, metaethics, indedicality, praticitions, fictions, and metaphysics, utilizing the critical viewpoint afforded by time, as well as new data, to offer insights on his theories and methodology.

The Philosophy Of Metacognition

Author: Joƫlle Proust
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 019102256X
Size: 78.56 MB
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The Philosophy Of Metacognition from the Author: Joƫlle Proust. Does metacognition, i.e. the capacity to form epistemic self-evaluations about one's current cognitive performance, derive from a mindreading capacity, or does it rely, at least in part, on sui generis informational processes? In The Philosophy of Metacognition Joƫlle Proust provides a powerful defense of the second position. Drawing on discussions of empirical evidence from comparative, developmental, and experimental psychology, as well as from neuroscience, and on conceptual analyses, she purports to show that, in contrast with analytic metacognition, procedural metacognition does not need to involve metarepresentations. Procedural metacognition seems to be available to some non-humans (some primates and rodents). Proust further claims that metacognition is essentially related to mental agency, i.e. cognitive control and monitoring. 'Self-probing' is equivalent to a self-addressed question about the feasibility of a mental action ('Am I able to remember this word?'). 'Post-evaluating' is a way of asking oneself whether a given mental action has been successfully completed ('Is this word the one I was looking for?'). Neither question need be articulated conceptually for a feeling of knowing or of being right to be generated, or to drive epistemic control. Various issues raised by the contrast of a procedural, experience-based metacognition, with an analytic, concept-based metacognition are explored, such as whether each is expressed in a different representational format, their sensitivity to different epistemic norms, and the existence of a variety of types of epistemic acceptance.

Consciousness And The Self

Author: JeeLoo Liu
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107000750
Size: 29.39 MB
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Consciousness And The Self from the Author: JeeLoo Liu. New essays connecting recent scientific studies with traditional issues about the self explored by Descartes, Locke and Hume. Leading philosophers offer contrasting perspectives on the relation between consciousness and self-awareness, and the notion of personhood. Essential reading for philosophers, neuroscientists, cognitive scientists and psychologists.

Explaining The Mental

Author: Carlo Penco
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443806536
Size: 47.50 MB
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Explaining The Mental from the Author: Carlo Penco. The aim of this collection of papers is to present different philosophical perspectives on the mental, exploring questions about how to define, explain and understand the various kinds of mental acts and processes, and exhibiting, in particular, the contrast between naturalistic and non-naturalistic approaches. There is a long tradition in philosophy of clarifying concepts such as those of thinking, knowing and believing. The task of clarifying these concepts has become ever more important with the major developments that have taken place over the last century in the human and cognitive sciences - most notably, psychology, sociology, linguistics, neurophysiology, AI, and cognitive science itself. In all these sciences, there is a need to delineate the domain of the mental and to elucidate the key concepts and underlying assumptions. This need is widely recognized, but approaches and answers vary significantly. Some stress the representational features involved in most of our mental processes, others the inferential dimension; some stress the necessity of using empirical data, others the need to refine ideas before pursuing and drawing on empirical research. The papers collected in this volume are grouped into four parts, on language and thought, on knowledge, belief and action, on intentionality, and on naturalism. The volume will be welcomed by all those engaged and interested in debates about the mental in philosophy and the human and cognitive sciences. Table of Contents PART I: LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT Andrew Woodfield, Public Words Considered as Vehicles of Thinking Andrea Bianchi, Speaking and Thinking (Or: A More Kaplanian Way to a Unified Account of Language and Thought) Stefano Predelli, The Strange Case of the Missing Constituent PART II: KNOWLEDGE, BELIEF AND ACTION Pascal Engel, Taking Seriously Knowledge as a Mental State Carlo Gabbani, Epistemology and the Eliminative Stance Jennifer Hornsby, Knowledge, Belief and Reasons for Acting Wolfgang KĆ¼nne, Some Varieties of Deception PART III: INTENTIONALITY Sandro Nannini, Intentionality Naturalised Elisabetta Sacchi, Thought and Thinking: the Ontological Ground of Intentionality Elisabeth Pacherie, Is Collective Intentionality Really Primitive? PART IV: NATURALISM Marcello Frixione, Do Concepts exist? A Naturalistic Point of View Tim Crane, Cosmic Hermeneutics vs. Emergence: the Challenge of the Explanatory Gap Achim Stephan and Robert C. Richardson, What Physicalism Should Provide Us With Mario De Caro, The Claims of Naturalism

Self Representational Approaches To Consciousness

Author: Uriah Kriegel
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262612119
Size: 38.55 MB
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Self Representational Approaches To Consciousness from the Author: Uriah Kriegel. Leading theorists examine the self-representational theory of consciousness as analternative to the two dominant reductive theories of consciousness, the representational theory ofconsciousness and the higher-order monitoring theory.

Modeling And Using Context

Author: Henning Christiansen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319255916
Size: 74.27 MB
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Modeling And Using Context from the Author: Henning Christiansen. This book constitutes the proceedings of the 9th International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context, CONTEXT 2015, held in Larnaca, Cyprus, in November 2015. The 33 full papers and 13 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 91 submissions. The main theme of CONTEXT 2015 was "Back to the roots", focusing on the importance of interdisciplinary cooperations and studies of the phenomenon. Context, context modeling and context comprehension are central topics in linguistics, philosophy, sociology, artificial intelligence, computer science, art, law, organizational sciences, cognitive science, psychology, etc. and are also essential for the effectiveness of modern, complex and distributed software systems. CONTEXT 2015 embedded also a Doctoral Symposium, and three workshops; Smart University 3.0; CATI: Context Awareness and Tactile Design for Mobile Interaction; and SHAPES 3.0: The Shape of Things.