The Gibraltar Crusade

Author: Joseph F. O'Callaghan
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812204638
Size: 31.57 MB
Format: PDF
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The Gibraltar Crusade from the Author: Joseph F. O'Callaghan. The epic battle for control of the Strait of Gibraltar waged by Castile, Morocco, and Granada in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries is a major, but often overlooked, chapter in the history of the Christian reconquest of Spain. After the Castilian conquest of Seville in 1248 and the submission of the Muslim kingdom of Granada as a vassal state, the Moors no longer loomed as a threat and the reconquest seemed to be over. Still, in the following century, the Castilian kings, prompted by ideology and strategy, attempted to dominate the Strait. As self-proclaimed heirs of the Visigoths, they aspired not only to reconstitute the Visigothic kingdom by expelling the Muslims from Spain but also to conquer Morocco as part of the Visigothic legacy. As successive bands of Muslims over the centuries had crossed the Strait from Morocco into Spain, the kings of Castile recognized the strategic importance of securing Algeciras, Gibraltar, and Tarifa, the ports long used by the invaders. At a time when European enthusiasm for the crusade to the Holy Land was on the wane, the Christian struggle for the Strait received the character of a crusade as papal bulls conferred the crusading indulgence as well as ancillary benefits. The Gibraltar Crusade had mixed results. Although the Castilians seized Gibraltar in 1309 and Algeciras in 1344, the Moors eventually repossessed them. Only Tarifa, captured in 1292, remained in Castilian hands. Nevertheless, the power of the Marinid dynasty of Morocco was broken at the battle of Salado in 1340, and for the remainder of the Middle Ages Spain was relieved of the threat of Moroccan invasion. While the reconquest remained dormant during the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, Ferdinand and Isabella conquered Granada, the last Muslim outpost in Spain, in 1492. In subsequent years Castile fulfilled its earlier aspirations by establishing a foothold in Morocco.

To Win And Lose A Medieval Battle

Author: Andrew Villalon
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004345809
Size: 18.21 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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To Win And Lose A Medieval Battle from the Author: Andrew Villalon. In To Win or Lose a Medieval Battle, Andrew Villalon and Donald Kagay provide a full treatment of one of the major battles of the Hundred Years War. The authors have investigated the background to Nájera, traced its immediate events, and laid out its effects on Iberia and the principal adversaries in the Hundred Years War.

The Last Crusade In The West

Author: Joseph F. O'Callaghan
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812209354
Size: 59.98 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Last Crusade In The West from the Author: Joseph F. O'Callaghan. By the middle of the fourteenth century, Christian control of the Iberian Peninsula extended to the borders of the emirate of Granada, whose Muslim rulers acknowledged Castilian suzerainty. No longer threatened by Moroccan incursions, the kings of Castile were diverted from completing the Reconquest by civil war and conflicts with neighboring Christian kings. Mindful, however, of their traditional goal of recovering lands formerly ruled by the Visigoths, whose heirs they claimed to be, the Castilian monarchs continued intermittently to assault Granada until the late fifteenth century. Matters changed thereafter, when Fernando and Isabel launched a decade-long effort to subjugate Granada. Utilizing artillery and expending vast sums of money, they methodically conquered each Naṣrid stronghold until the capitulation of the city of Granada itself in 1492. Effective military and naval organization and access to a diversity of financial resources, joined with papal crusading benefits, facilitated the final conquest. Throughout, the Naṣrids had emphasized the urgency of a jihād waged against the Christian infidels, while the Castilians affirmed that the expulsion of the "enemies of our Catholic faith" was a necessary, just, and holy cause. The fundamentally religious character of this last stage of conflict cannot be doubted, Joseph F. O'Callaghan argues.

Latin And Greece

Author: Anthony Luttrell
Publisher: Variorum Publishing
ISBN:
Size: 44.22 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Latin And Greece from the Author: Anthony Luttrell.

Nomads And Crusaders A D 1000 1368

Author: Archibald Ross Lewis
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 80.23 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Nomads And Crusaders A D 1000 1368 from the Author: Archibald Ross Lewis. "[A] fine, arresting book with a clear and novel thesis and a firm grasp of geography. Good stuff, in short . . . strongly recommended." -William H. McNeill