The Synthetic Ones

Author: Lionel Roberts
Publisher: Hachette UK
ISBN: 1473203724
Size: 76.83 MB
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The Synthetic Ones from the Author: Lionel Roberts. Is there a Destiny? Does Fate impose a limit? What Barrier stands between man and the creation of life? Since the legendary failure of the ill-fated Frankenstein, man has tried time and time again to pass those limits. He has created androids, clumsy robots of flesh and blood. He has made men of metal and servants of plastic, with wheels for limbs and magnetic tapes for voices. Man has made things by cross breeding the animal kingdom and destroying Nature's intentions...but man has never yet made man. Or has he? Forbisher thought that he had the answer. It wasn't a clumsy Synthetic. It wasn't an Android, or a Robot, it was a real flesh and blood human being. The beautiful woman in his arms was the product of a laboratory experiment, not the result of a natural biological process. But how could he prove it?

2 Substituted 1 3 Dioxan 5 Ones

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2 Substituted 1 3 Dioxan 5 Ones from the Author: . This dissertation deals primarily with synthesis, reactions and synthetic applications of 2-substituted- 1,3-dioxan-5-ones. This class of compounds could be viewed as synthetic equivalents of natures building block--1,3-dihydroxyacetone and could be used in construction of many polyoxygenated natural products. A general, simple, cheap and easy to scale-up synthesis of 2-substituted-1,3dioxan-5-ones was developed. The yields of this three-step procedure, starting form commercially available tris(hydroxymethyl)nitromethane, ranged from 40 to 90%. The exploration of the chemistry of 2-substituted-1,3-dioxan-5-ones was focused on carboanion chemistry of these compounds. 2-Substituted-1,3-dioxan-5-ones were shown to easily form corresponding lithium, boron and titanium enolates. The 2-'tert'-butyl-2-methyl-1,3-dioxan-5-one was deprotonated enantioselectively in 90% e.e. with the aid of chiral lithium amide derived from (R)- or (S)-'N'-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-1-phenylethylamine. This successful outcome was a result of extensive methodological studies. The enolates reacted readily with electrophiles: reactions with aldehydes provided 'anti' aldols in modest to high selectivities in cases of lithium and boron enolates and 'syn' aldols in case of titanium enolate. The enolates could be conveniently trapped as trimethylsilyl enol ethers or as enol acetates, however they failed to react with alkylating agents. The problem was solved using Enders' chiral hydrazone method. The synthetic utility of 2-substituted-1,3-dioxan-5-ones was illustrated in syntheses of (+)-frontalin and several protected ketohexoses. Additionally, the kinetics of deprotonation of a simple ketone with lithium diisopropylamide was investigated in order to shed some light on the mechanism of this type of reaction. The reaction was shown to be first order in ketone and half order in the base, and half order in the base, which suggests a monomer-based mechanism.


Author: Information Resources Management Association
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 146663605X
Size: 67.79 MB
Format: PDF
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Bioinformatics from the Author: Information Resources Management Association. "Bioinformatics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications highlights the area of bioinformatics and its impact over the medical community with its innovations that change how we recognize and care for illnesses"--Provided by publisher.

The Science And Applications Of Synthetic And Systems Biology

Author: Forum on Microbial Threats
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309219396
Size: 78.97 MB
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The Science And Applications Of Synthetic And Systems Biology from the Author: Forum on Microbial Threats. Many potential applications of synthetic and systems biology are relevant to the challenges associated with the detection, surveillance, and responses to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. On March 14 and 15, 2011, the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop in Washington, DC, to explore the current state of the science of synthetic biology, including its dependency on systems biology; discussed the different approaches that scientists are taking to engineer, or reengineer, biological systems; and discussed how the tools and approaches of synthetic and systems biology were being applied to mitigate the risks associated with emerging infectious diseases. The Science and Applications of Synthetic and Systems Biology is organized into sections as a topic-by-topic distillation of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. Its purpose is to present information from relevant experience, to delineate a range of pivotal issues and their respective challenges, and to offer differing perspectives on the topic as discussed and described by the workshop participants. This report also includes a collection of individually authored papers and commentary.

Competing Comparative Constructions In Europe

Author: Thomas Stolz
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3050064994
Size: 23.44 MB
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Competing Comparative Constructions In Europe from the Author: Thomas Stolz. This in-depth areal-typological study analyzes the grammatical means which are employed in the languages of Europe to express the comparative of inequality/superiority. The extant theories and hypotheses about the morphosyntactic structure and the cross-linguistic distribution of construction types are reviewed. The behavior of comparatives under the conditions of language contact is discussed. Data from more than 170 standard and nonstandard varieties of European languages are scrutinized systematically. The synchronic picture is complemented by a chapter on the diachrony of comparative constructions. The European facts are compared to those of the geographically adjacent Asian and African regions. It is argued that cross-linguistic investigations must take account also of so-called secondary options. These secondary options suggest strongly that the supposedly dominant role of the particle comparative cannot be upheld for Europe. Moreover, only the secondary options allow us to draw isoglosses which cross the borders between Europe and Asia (and Africa).

Food Colorants

Author: Carmen Socaciu
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420009286
Size: 12.38 MB
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Food Colorants from the Author: Carmen Socaciu. Drawing on the expertise of internationally known, interdisciplinary scientists and researchers, Food Colorants: Chemical and Functional Properties provides an integrative image of the scientific characteristics, functionality, and applications of color molecules as pigments in food science and technology, as well as their impact on health. The book emphasizes the structure-function relationships of pigment molecules to explain biosynthesis, modifications and degradation during storage and processing, and the effect of these changes on quality and safety. Understanding the rate and nature of degradation assists in selecting optimum processing parameters. Beginning with an overview of the physics and biochemistry of color, the book focuses on the mechanics of pigment stability and bioavailability, and antioxidant and pro-oxidant action. It reviews the influence of pigments on health and metabolism, incorporating results of in vivo and in vitro studies. It addresses the occurrence of pigment in food matrices and their stability during processing and storage. Conventional technologies as well as new, environmentally friendly methods are presented along with recent advances in biotechnology to produce colorants. There is also a chapter on novel approaches to the biosynthesis of colorants by microalgae, microorganisms, and genetic engineering. Contributions give significant attention to analytical methods and recent advances in detecting both natural and synthetic colorants, their quality, quantity, and degradation during processing and storage. The book rounds out its comprehensive coverage with a look at quality and safety risk assessments and international regulations, as well as lists of formerly and newly approved colorants and additives. Peer reviewed contributions and critical evaluations ensure a concise, systematic presentation of the relationships between the chemical nature and functional properties of various natural and synthetic pigments used to color food.

Oxford Studies In Epistemology

Author: Tamar Szab├│ Gendler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199672709
Size: 28.89 MB
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Oxford Studies In Epistemology from the Author: Tamar Szab├│ Gendler. Oxford Studies in Epistemology is a biennial publication which offers a regular snapshot of state-of-the-art work in this important field. Under the guidance of a distinguished editorial board, it publishes exemplary papers in epistemology, broadly construed. Anyone wanting to understand the latest developments in the discipline can start here.

Image Analysis And Processing Iciap 2015

Author: Vittorio Murino
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319232312
Size: 53.43 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Image Analysis And Processing Iciap 2015 from the Author: Vittorio Murino. The two-volume set LNCS 9279 and 9280 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing, ICIAP 2015, held in Genoa, Italy, in September 2015. The 129 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 231 submissions. The papers are organized in the following seven topical sections: video analysis and understanding, multiview geometry and 3D computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning, image analysis, detection and recognition, shape analysis and modeling, multimedia, and biomedical applications.