The Synthetic Ones

Author: Lionel Roberts
Publisher: Hachette UK
ISBN: 1473203724
Size: 65.60 MB
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The Synthetic Ones from the Author: Lionel Roberts. Is there a Destiny? Does Fate impose a limit? What Barrier stands between man and the creation of life? Since the legendary failure of the ill-fated Frankenstein, man has tried time and time again to pass those limits. He has created androids, clumsy robots of flesh and blood. He has made men of metal and servants of plastic, with wheels for limbs and magnetic tapes for voices. Man has made things by cross breeding the animal kingdom and destroying Nature's intentions...but man has never yet made man. Or has he? Forbisher thought that he had the answer. It wasn't a clumsy Synthetic. It wasn't an Android, or a Robot, it was a real flesh and blood human being. The beautiful woman in his arms was the product of a laboratory experiment, not the result of a natural biological process. But how could he prove it?

2 Substituted 1 3 Dioxan 5 Ones

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 45.74 MB
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2 Substituted 1 3 Dioxan 5 Ones from the Author: . This dissertation deals primarily with synthesis, reactions and synthetic applications of 2-substituted- 1,3-dioxan-5-ones. This class of compounds could be viewed as synthetic equivalents of natures building block--1,3-dihydroxyacetone and could be used in construction of many polyoxygenated natural products. A general, simple, cheap and easy to scale-up synthesis of 2-substituted-1,3dioxan-5-ones was developed. The yields of this three-step procedure, starting form commercially available tris(hydroxymethyl)nitromethane, ranged from 40 to 90%. The exploration of the chemistry of 2-substituted-1,3-dioxan-5-ones was focused on carboanion chemistry of these compounds. 2-Substituted-1,3-dioxan-5-ones were shown to easily form corresponding lithium, boron and titanium enolates. The 2-'tert'-butyl-2-methyl-1,3-dioxan-5-one was deprotonated enantioselectively in 90% e.e. with the aid of chiral lithium amide derived from (R)- or (S)-'N'-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-1-phenylethylamine. This successful outcome was a result of extensive methodological studies. The enolates reacted readily with electrophiles: reactions with aldehydes provided 'anti' aldols in modest to high selectivities in cases of lithium and boron enolates and 'syn' aldols in case of titanium enolate. The enolates could be conveniently trapped as trimethylsilyl enol ethers or as enol acetates, however they failed to react with alkylating agents. The problem was solved using Enders' chiral hydrazone method. The synthetic utility of 2-substituted-1,3-dioxan-5-ones was illustrated in syntheses of (+)-frontalin and several protected ketohexoses. Additionally, the kinetics of deprotonation of a simple ketone with lithium diisopropylamide was investigated in order to shed some light on the mechanism of this type of reaction. The reaction was shown to be first order in ketone and half order in the base, and half order in the base, which suggests a monomer-based mechanism.

Food Colorants

Author: Carmen Socaciu
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420009286
Size: 65.66 MB
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Food Colorants from the Author: Carmen Socaciu. Drawing on the expertise of internationally known, interdisciplinary scientists and researchers, Food Colorants: Chemical and Functional Properties provides an integrative image of the scientific characteristics, functionality, and applications of color molecules as pigments in food science and technology, as well as their impact on health. The book emphasizes the structure-function relationships of pigment molecules to explain biosynthesis, modifications and degradation during storage and processing, and the effect of these changes on quality and safety. Understanding the rate and nature of degradation assists in selecting optimum processing parameters. Beginning with an overview of the physics and biochemistry of color, the book focuses on the mechanics of pigment stability and bioavailability, and antioxidant and pro-oxidant action. It reviews the influence of pigments on health and metabolism, incorporating results of in vivo and in vitro studies. It addresses the occurrence of pigment in food matrices and their stability during processing and storage. Conventional technologies as well as new, environmentally friendly methods are presented along with recent advances in biotechnology to produce colorants. There is also a chapter on novel approaches to the biosynthesis of colorants by microalgae, microorganisms, and genetic engineering. Contributions give significant attention to analytical methods and recent advances in detecting both natural and synthetic colorants, their quality, quantity, and degradation during processing and storage. The book rounds out its comprehensive coverage with a look at quality and safety risk assessments and international regulations, as well as lists of formerly and newly approved colorants and additives. Peer reviewed contributions and critical evaluations ensure a concise, systematic presentation of the relationships between the chemical nature and functional properties of various natural and synthetic pigments used to color food.

Polymeric Biomaterials

Author: Severian Dumitriu
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420094718
Size: 32.62 MB
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Polymeric Biomaterials from the Author: Severian Dumitriu. Biomaterials have had a major impact on the practice of contemporary medicine and patient care. Growing into a major interdisciplinary effort involving chemists, biologists, engineers, and physicians, biomaterials development has enabled the creation of high-quality devices, implants, and drug carriers with greater biocompatibility and biofunctionality. The fast-paced research and increasing interest in finding new and improved biocompatible or biodegradable polymers has provided a wealth of new information, transforming this edition of Polymeric Biomaterials into a two-volume set. This volume, Polymeric Biomaterials: Structure and Function, contains 25 authoritative chapters written by experts from around the world. Contributors cover the following topics: The structure and properties of synthetic polymers including polyesters, polyphosphazenes, and elastomers The structure and properties of natural polymers such as mucoadhesives, chitin, lignin, and carbohydrate derivatives Blends and composites—for example, metal–polymer composites and biodegradable polymeric/ceramic composites Bioresorbable hybrid membranes, drug delivery systems, cell bioassay systems, electrospinning for regenerative medicine, and more Completely revised and expanded, this state-of-the-art reference presents recent developments in polymeric biomaterials: from their chemical, physical, and structural properties to polymer synthesis and processing techniques and current applications in the medical and pharmaceutical fields.

Polymeric Biomaterials Structure And Function

Author: Severian Dumitriu
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 142009470X
Size: 11.12 MB
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Polymeric Biomaterials Structure And Function from the Author: Severian Dumitriu. Biomaterials have had a major impact on the practice of contemporary medicine and patient care. Growing into a major interdisciplinary effort involving chemists, biologists, engineers, and physicians, biomaterials development has enabled the creation of high-quality devices, implants, and drug carriers with greater biocompatibility and biofunctionality. The fast-paced research and increasing interest in finding new and improved biocompatible or biodegradable polymers has provided a wealth of new information, transforming this edition of Polymeric Biomaterials into a two-volume set. This volume, Polymeric Biomaterials: Structure and Function, contains 25 authoritative chapters written by experts from around the world. Contributors cover the following topics: The structure and properties of synthetic polymers including polyesters, polyphosphazenes, and elastomers The structure and properties of natural polymers such as mucoadhesives, chitin, lignin, and carbohydrate derivatives Blends and composites—for example, metal–polymer composites and biodegradable polymeric/ceramic composites Bioresorbable hybrid membranes, drug delivery systems, cell bioassay systems, electrospinning for regenerative medicine, and more Completely revised and expanded, this state-of-the-art reference presents recent developments in polymeric biomaterials: from their chemical, physical, and structural properties to polymer synthesis and processing techniques and current applications in the medical and pharmaceutical fields.

Bioinformatics

Author: Information Resources Management Association
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 146663605X
Size: 23.72 MB
Format: PDF
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Bioinformatics from the Author: Information Resources Management Association. "Bioinformatics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications highlights the area of bioinformatics and its impact over the medical community with its innovations that change how we recognize and care for illnesses"--Provided by publisher.

Gene Therapy And Cancer Research Focus

Author: Rebecca N. Campbell
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781600219702
Size: 53.47 MB
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Gene Therapy And Cancer Research Focus from the Author: Rebecca N. Campbell. Gene therapy is an experimental treatment that involves introducing genetic material into a person's cells to fight disease. It is studied in clinical trials for many different types of cancer. This book presents research in this field.