Space Exploration In A Changing International Environment

Author: James Andrew Lewis
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442240237
Size: 27.95 MB
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Space Exploration In A Changing International Environment from the Author: James Andrew Lewis. This CSIS Report examines the strategic implications of manned space exploration. The current phase of exploration is coming to an end, and nations are seeking the next step. The decisions of the United States and its partners on the future of space exploration will determine the strategic situation in space. There are difficult issues to consider in moving ahead: the target of exploration beyond LEO, the balance between manned and unmanned programs, the future of partnership and cooperation in space, and the ultimate fate of the ISS. How Western space powers answer these questions will determine both the pace and the future direction of exploration in space.

Securing U S Innovation

Author: Darren E. Tromblay
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442256362
Size: 13.67 MB
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Securing U S Innovation from the Author: Darren E. Tromblay. As experienced by the United States, competition has played out in three distinct types of threat activity: sabotage (the destruction of capabilities), espionage (the theft of specific capabilities), and defection (the carrying of knowledge out of the country). Today, the changing innovation environment has created new challenges. Significant advances are being made in start-ups as well as larger companies who no longer rely on U.S. government contracts. Not only does this place a key element of national power in the hands of the private sector, but it often leaves Washington at an informational disadvantage in understanding technologies. This book analyzes these concepts from the perspective of the United States’ experience in the field of innovation security. Historical and recent examples illustrate the threats to innovation, the various approaches to mitigating them, and how the evolution of the innovative process now requires rethinking how the United States can benefit from and preserve its cutting edge human capital.

The Future Of Human Space Exploration

Author: Giovanni Bignami
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137526580
Size: 22.64 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Future Of Human Space Exploration from the Author: Giovanni Bignami. For several decades it has been widely accepted that human space exploration is the exclusive domain of government agencies. The cost of performing such missions, estimated in multiple reports to amount to hundreds of billions dollars over decades, was far beyond what private entities could afford. That arrangement seems to be changing. Buoyed by the success of its program to develop commercial cargo capabilities to support the International Space Station, NASA is becoming increasingly open to working with the private sector in its human space exploration plans. The new private-public partnership will make 'planet hopping' feasible. This book analyses the move towards planet hopping, which sees human outposts moving across the planetary dimensions, from the Moon to Near-Earth Asteroids and Mars. It critically assesses the intention to exploit space resources and how successful these missions will be for humanity. This insightful and accessible book will be of great interest to scholars and students of space policy and politics, international studies, and science and technology studies.

Recapturing A Future For Space Exploration

Author: Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309163846
Size: 44.68 MB
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Recapturing A Future For Space Exploration from the Author: Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space. More than four decades have passed since a human first set foot on the Moon. Great strides have been made in our understanding of what is required to support an enduring human presence in space, as evidenced by progressively more advanced orbiting human outposts, culminating in the current International Space Station (ISS). However, of the more than 500 humans who have so far ventured into space, most have gone only as far as near-Earth orbit, and none have traveled beyond the orbit of the Moon. Achieving humans' further progress into the solar system had proved far more difficult than imagined in the heady days of the Apollo missions, but the potential rewards remain substantial. During its more than 50-year history, NASA's success in human space exploration has depended on the agency's ability to effectively address a wide range of biomedical, engineering, physical science, and related obstacles--an achievement made possible by NASA's strong and productive commitments to life and physical sciences research for human space exploration, and by its use of human space exploration infrastructures for scientific discovery. The Committee for the Decadal Survey of Biological and Physical Sciences acknowledges the many achievements of NASA, which are all the more remarkable given budgetary challenges and changing directions within the agency. In the past decade, however, a consequence of those challenges has been a life and physical sciences research program that was dramatically reduced in both scale and scope, with the result that the agency is poorly positioned to take full advantage of the scientific opportunities offered by the now fully equipped and staffed ISS laboratory, or to effectively pursue the scientific research needed to support the development of advanced human exploration capabilities. Although its review has left it deeply concerned about the current state of NASA's life and physical sciences research, the Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space is nevertheless convinced that a focused science and engineering program can achieve successes that will bring the space community, the U.S. public, and policymakers to an understanding that we are ready for the next significant phase of human space exploration. The goal of this report is to lay out steps and develop a forward-looking portfolio of research that will provide the basis for recapturing the excitement and value of human spaceflight--thereby enabling the U.S. space program to deliver on new exploration initiatives that serve the nation, excite the public, and place the United States again at the forefront of space exploration for the global good.

Global Environmental Change And International Relations

Author: Malory Greene
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1349218162
Size: 17.16 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Global Environmental Change And International Relations from the Author: Malory Greene. Climate change and depletion of the ozone layer are two examples of dramatic changes in the Earth's natural environment which raise new questions in international relations. The nine chapters in this book explore some of the theoretical and policy problems that are posed by global environmental change. The variety of perspectives employed - international relations theory, international political economy, international law, strategic studies, North-South issues and Eastern Europe - illustrates the complexity of the issues involved.

Environment Protection And Sustainable Development

Author: Saligram Bhatt
Publisher: APH Publishing
ISBN: 9788176485128
Size: 39.16 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Environment Protection And Sustainable Development from the Author: Saligram Bhatt. This Book Should Be Of Much Interest To Scholars In Law And Science, To The Environmental Economists And To All Sltudents Of Law Involved In Sustainable Development And Environment Protection.

Life And Physical Sciences Research For A New Era Of Space Exploration

Author: Space Studies Board
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309157129
Size: 10.69 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Life And Physical Sciences Research For A New Era Of Space Exploration from the Author: Space Studies Board. In response to requests from Congress, NASA asked the National Research Council to undertake a decadal survey of life and physical sciences in microgravity. Developed in consultation with members of the life and physical sciences communities, the guiding principle for the study is to set an agenda for research for the next decade that will allow the use of the space environment to solve complex problems in life and physical sciences so as to deliver both new knowledge and practical benefits for humankind as we become a spacefaring people. The project's statement of task calls for delivery of two books--an interim report and a final survey report. Although the development of specific recommendations is deferred until the final book, this interim report does attempt to identify programmatic needs and issues to guide near-term decisions that are critical to strengthening the organization and management of life and physical sciences research at NASA.

International Environmental Policy

Author: Lynton Keith Caldwell
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822318668
Size: 33.54 MB
Format: PDF
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International Environmental Policy from the Author: Lynton Keith Caldwell. In this newly revised and expanded edition of the award-winning International Environmental Policy, Lynton Keith Caldwell updates his comprehensive survey of the global international movement for protection of the environment. Serving as a history of international cooperation on environmental issues, this book focuses primarily on the development of international agreements and institutional arrangements—both governmental and nongovernmental—along with the impact of science, technology, trade, and communication on environmental policy. With implications for multinational commerce, population policy, agriculture, energy issues, biological and cultural diversity, transnational equity, ideology, and education, this book takes a broad view of the policy outcomes of what may be the most important social movement of the 20th century, and addresses the events and politics that have significantly affected the movement over the last twenty years and will continue to affect it into the next century.

Policy Making In An Era Of Global Environmental Change

Author: R.E. Munn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400916124
Size: 23.89 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Policy Making In An Era Of Global Environmental Change from the Author: R.E. Munn. Major international, interdisciplinary research programmes are now underway to increase our understanding of how the Earth System operates and how it is changing through the effects of human activities. Although understanding and predictive capacity are still limited, scientists already agree that significant global changes must be expected in the next 50 years that will affect the capacity of the Earth to sustain life. Governments, business and industry have, therefore, come to recognize that scientific knowledge about the changing global environment - as yet incomplete but rapidly evolving - is becoming indispensable for wise long-term policy making, the goal being to design preventive, adaptive and remedial measures. Thus global change science and policy making are engaged in a process of forming a new partnership that is taking shape as further insights evolve. Effective continuous interactions between the partners requires mutual understanding: decision-makers need to understand the unique potential but also the limitations of the results of scientific research in progress while scientists must take into account the priorities and constraints of policy-makers in designing and implementing policies that will promote long-term sustainability of life on this planet. This book contributes in a unique manner to this mutual understanding: It gives an overview of the ongoing relevant research focusing on the two major international programmes, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and the World Climate Research Programme. These are described in terms understandable to the interested lay reader. The results of the latest review of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are included. This is followed by an analysis of the response process that is in progress with respect to governments - singly and multilaterally - by business and industry and by public interest groups. This process is leading to interactive structures, assessment procedures and legislation, nationally and internationally. Business and industry are changing from mere watchfulness to recognition of new opportunities for products and processes. Six interviews with prominent figures from business and government circles in the Netherlands provide a vivid illustration of the questions at issue. The appendices provide overviews of methods for incorporating the results of global change science into policy-making and development of long lasting projects. Adaptation to climate change serves as an example. Thus, for the first time, one book describes both ongoing research work in global change and the response processes that the research results are evoking. It is of interest to all stake-holders in the scientific community as well as to decision-makers in industry, business and government.