Russian Federation 2014 Article Iv Consultation Staff Report Informational Annex Press Release

Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498396828
Size: 54.94 MB
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Russian Federation 2014 Article Iv Consultation Staff Report Informational Annex Press Release from the Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.. This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Russian Federation’s growth slowdown that began in 2011, reflecting structural constraints, continued in 2013 despite accommodative policies. Real GDP growth slowed to 1.3 percent owing to a contraction in investment while consumption remained robust owing to strong real wage growth and an unsecured consumer credit boom. The general government balance moved from a modest surplus in 2012 to a deficit of slightly more than 1 percent of GDP in 2013. The IMF staff projects real GDP growth at 0.2 percent in 2014 with considerable downside risks.

The Political Economy Of Energy Subsidy Reform

Author: Gabriela Inchauste
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464810087
Size: 13.51 MB
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The Political Economy Of Energy Subsidy Reform from the Author: Gabriela Inchauste. This book proposes a simple framework for understanding the political economy of subsidy reform and applies it to four in-depth country studies covering more than 30 distinct episodes of reform. Five key lessons emerge. First, energy subsidies often follow a life cycle, beginning as a way to stabilize prices and reduce exposure to price volatility for low-income consumers. However, as they grow in size and political power, they become entrenched. Second, subsidy reform strategies vary because the underlying political economy problems vary. When benefits are concentrated, satisfying (or isolating) interest groups with alternative policies is an important condition for effective reform. When benefits are diffuse, it can be much harder to identify and manage the political coalition needed for reform. Third, governments vary in their administrative and political capacities to implement difficult energy subsidy reforms. Fourth, improvements in social protection systems are often critical to the success of reforms because they make it possible to target assistance to those most in need. Finally, the most interesting cases involve governments that take a strategic approach to the challenges of political economy. In these settings, fixing energy subsidies is central to the governments’ missions of retaining political power and reorganizing how the government delivers benefits to the population. These cases are examples of “reform engineering,†? where governments actively seek to create the capacity to implement alternative policies, depoliticize tariffs, and build credibility around alternative policies. The most successful reforms involve active efforts by policy leaders to identify the political forces supporting energy subsidies and redirect or inoculate them.

Is Fiscal Policy The Answer

Author: Blanca Moreno-Dodson
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821396315
Size: 35.80 MB
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Is Fiscal Policy The Answer from the Author: Blanca Moreno-Dodson. The effects of fiscal policy measures, both taxes and public spending, adopted by developing countries in response to the 2009 global crisis are still uncertain. This book discusses them using an analytical framework that allows for distilling possible implications on growth and social welfare.

How Russia Affects The Neighborhood

Author: Jaime Espinosa-Bowen
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1452736936
Size: 19.27 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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How Russia Affects The Neighborhood from the Author: Jaime Espinosa-Bowen. We test the extent to which growth in the 11 CIS countries (excluding Russia) was associated with developments in Russia, overall, as well as through the trade, financial and remittance channels over the last decade or so. The results point to the continued existence of economic links between the CIS countries and Russia, though these links may have altered since the 1998 crisis. Russia appears to influence regional growth mainly through the remittance channel and somewhat less so through the financial channel. There is a shrinking role of the trade (exports to Russia) channel. Russian growth shocks are associated with sizable effects on Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and, to some extent, Georgia.

Exchange Rate Assessments

Author: Jaewoo Lee
Publisher: IMF's Occasional Paper
ISBN:
Size: 67.50 MB
Format: PDF
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Exchange Rate Assessments from the Author: Jaewoo Lee. As part of this mandate, since the mid-1990s the IMF Consultative Group on Exchange Rate Issues (CGER) has provided exchange rate assessments for a number of advanced economies from a multilateral perspective, with the aim of informing the country-specific analysis of the IMF's Article IV staff reports and fostering multilateral consistency. These assessments are additional tools at the disposal of the IMF staff country desks, which are responsible for formulating exchange rate assessments as part of the Fund's bilateral surveillance, another of the IMF's core responsibilities.

Twelve Years A Slave

Author: Solomon Northup
Publisher: LSU Press
ISBN: 9780807101506
Size: 10.13 MB
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Twelve Years A Slave from the Author: Solomon Northup. Solomon Northup was a free man, the son of an emancipated Negro Slave. Until the spring of 1841 he lived a simple, uneventful life with his wife and three children in Upstate New York. Then, suddenly, he fell victim to a series of bizarre events that make this one of the most amazing autobiographies ever written. Northup accepted an offer from two strangers in Saratoga, New York, to catch up with their traveling circus and play in its band. But when the chase ended, Northup had been drugged, beaten, and sold to a slave trader in Washington, D.C. Subsequently, he was shipped to New Orleans, where he was purchased by a planter in the Red River region of Louisiana. For the next twelve years Northup lived as a chattel slave under several masters. He might well have died a slave, except for another set of bizarre circumstances which enabled him to get word to his family and finally regain his freedom. These elements alone -- the kidnapping, enslavement, and rescue -- are sufficient for a sensational story. But Northup provides more. He was a shrewd observer of people and events. His memory was remarkable. He described cultivation of cotton and sugar in the Deep South. He detailed the daily routine and general life of the Negro slave. Indeed, he vividly portrayed the world of slavery -- from the underside. Originally published in 1853, Northup's autobiography is regarded as one of the best accounts of American Negro slavery ever written by a slave. It is reprinted in full here for the first time, as the initial volume in The Library of Southern Civilization. Northup's account has been carefully checked by the editors and has been found to be remarkably accurate. To his own narrative of a long and tragic adventure, Professors Eakin and Logsdon have added significant new details about Northup and the plantation country where he spent most of his time as a slave. Heretofore unknown information about the capture and trial of Northup's kidnappers has been included, adding still another fascinating episode to an already astounding story.

Consular Law And Practice

Author: Luke T. Lee
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198256019
Size: 35.32 MB
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Consular Law And Practice from the Author: Luke T. Lee. First published in 1961, Consular Law and Practice is a classic work of enormous interest and practical use to diplomats, consuls, and international lawyers. The second edition of this work is now thoroughly revised and updated, and covers the historical evolution of the subject, the Vienna Convention, general laws of consular relations, the traditional and changing role of consuls, diplomatic privileges and immunities, and the function of consuls as ambassadors in cultural and scientific exchange.