Russian Federation 2014 Article Iv Consultation Staff Report Informational Annex Press Release

Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498397611
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Russian Federation 2014 Article Iv Consultation Staff Report Informational Annex Press Release from the Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.. This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Russian Federation’s growth slowdown that began in 2011, reflecting structural constraints, continued in 2013 despite accommodative policies. Real GDP growth slowed to 1.3 percent owing to a contraction in investment while consumption remained robust owing to strong real wage growth and an unsecured consumer credit boom. The general government balance moved from a modest surplus in 2012 to a deficit of slightly more than 1 percent of GDP in 2013. The IMF staff projects real GDP growth at 0.2 percent in 2014 with considerable downside risks.


Author: International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1475561830
Size: 73.56 MB
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Grenada from the Author: International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.. This paper discusses Grenada’s Fifth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF), Request for Modification of Performance Criteria, and Financing Assurances review. Overall program implementation remains solid. All quantitative performance criteria for the Fifth Review were met. Some structural benchmarks have been delayed, but there has been corrective action. The authorities have advanced reforms to strengthen tax administration, improve public finance management, and bolster the business environment. The IMF staff supports the completion of the Fifth Review under the ECF arrangement.

They Took Everything From Me

Author: Jane Buchanan
ISBN: 9781564328687
Size: 14.43 MB
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They Took Everything From Me from the Author: Jane Buchanan. "Since 2008, the government of Azerbaijan has undertaken a sweeping program of urban redevelopment in the capital, Baku. But in doing so it has illegally expropriated and demolished hundreds of homes, and forcibly evicted homeowners, violating their rights in the process. Based on interviews with affected homeowners, 'They Took Everything From Me' documents how the authorities forcibly evicted residents and demolished homes without adequate notice, often without warning or in the middle of the night, and destroyed or damaged personal possessions. In some cases the authorities cut off services, including electricity and water, and dismantled apartment buildings in order to compel remaining residents to leave. The report describes how the government refused to provide homeowners fair compensation for the values of properties, many of which are in highly-desirable locations. It also details the lack of effective legal recourse or remedy to individuals whose rights were violated. One of the four neighborhoods described in this report is Bayil, the seaside location of the National Flag Square and the Baku Crystal Hall, the venue for the May 2012 Eurovision Song Contest. Human Rights Watch calls on the Azerbaijani government to halt all further expropriations, evictions, and demolitions until they can be carried out in a manner consistent with Azerbaijani law and international human rights law. The prosecutor's office should initiate an independent inquiry into why the expropriations and demolitions in central Baku have been allowed to take place in a manner that clearly violates Azerbaijani and international law."--P. [4] of cover.

The Political Economy Of Energy Subsidy Reform

Author: Gabriela Inchauste
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464810087
Size: 78.54 MB
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The Political Economy Of Energy Subsidy Reform from the Author: Gabriela Inchauste. This book proposes a simple framework for understanding the political economy of subsidy reform and applies it to four in-depth country studies covering more than 30 distinct episodes of reform. Five key lessons emerge. First, energy subsidies often follow a life cycle, beginning as a way to stabilize prices and reduce exposure to price volatility for low-income consumers. However, as they grow in size and political power, they become entrenched. Second, subsidy reform strategies vary because the underlying political economy problems vary. When benefits are concentrated, satisfying (or isolating) interest groups with alternative policies is an important condition for effective reform. When benefits are diffuse, it can be much harder to identify and manage the political coalition needed for reform. Third, governments vary in their administrative and political capacities to implement difficult energy subsidy reforms. Fourth, improvements in social protection systems are often critical to the success of reforms because they make it possible to target assistance to those most in need. Finally, the most interesting cases involve governments that take a strategic approach to the challenges of political economy. In these settings, fixing energy subsidies is central to the governments’ missions of retaining political power and reorganizing how the government delivers benefits to the population. These cases are examples of “reform engineering,†? where governments actively seek to create the capacity to implement alternative policies, depoliticize tariffs, and build credibility around alternative policies. The most successful reforms involve active efforts by policy leaders to identify the political forces supporting energy subsidies and redirect or inoculate them.

The Oxford Handbook Of The Law Of The Sea

Author: Donald R. Rothwell
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 019871548X
Size: 34.47 MB
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The Oxford Handbook Of The Law Of The Sea from the Author: Donald R. Rothwell. Human activities have taken place in the world's oceans and seas for most of human history. With such a vast number of ways in which the oceans can be used for trade, exploited for natural resources and fishing, as well as concerns over maritime security, the legal systems regulating the rights and responsibilities of nations in their use of the world's oceans have long been a crucial part of international law. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea comprehensively defined the parameters of the law of the sea in 1982, and since the Convention was concluded it has seen considerable development. This Oxford Handbook provides a comprehensive and original analysis of its current debates and controversies, both theoretical and practical. Written by over forty expert and interdisciplinary contributors, the Handbook sets out how the law of the sea has developed, and the challenges it is currently facing. The Handbook consists of forty chapters divided into six parts. First, it explains the origins and evolution of the law of the sea, with a particular focus upon the role of key publicists such as Hugo Grotius and John Selden, the gradual development of state practice, and the creation of the 1982 UN Convention. It then reviews the components which comprise the maritime domain, assessing their definition, assertion, and recognition. It also analyses the ways in which coastal states or the international community can assert control over areas of the sea, and the management and regulation of each of the maritime zones. This includes investigating the development of the mechanisms for maritime boundary delimitation, and the decisions of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. The Handbook also discusses the actors and intuitions that impact on the law of the sea, considering their particular rights and interests, in particular those of state actors and the principle law of the sea institutions. Then it focuses on operational issues, investigating longstanding matters of resource management and the integrated oceans framework. This includes a discussion and assessment of the broad and increasingly influential integrated oceans management governance framework that interacts with the traditional law of the sea. It considers six distinctive regions that have been pivotal to the development of the law of the sea, before finally providing a detailed analysis of the critical contemporary issues facing the law of the sea. These include threatened species, climate change, bioprospecting, and piracy. The Handbook will be an invaluable and thought-provoking resource for scholars, students, and practitioners of the law of the sea.

The General Data Dissemination System Guide For Participants And Users

Author: International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1484363884
Size: 79.17 MB
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The General Data Dissemination System Guide For Participants And Users from the Author: International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.. The purpose of this Guide is to explain the nature and objectives of the General Data Dissemination System (GDDS), to describe its operation, and to provide practical guidance to International Monetary Fund (IMF) member countries on participation in the system. The GDDS provides members with a basic framework for a broader national statistical development strategy. It covers a set of statistics recognized to be essential for all countries for policymaking and analysis in an environment that increasingly requires relevant, comprehensive, accurate, and timely statistics available to the general public. The GDDS addresses the full range of issues critical for compiling and disseminating data and making explicit plans for improvement to align national procedures with best practices. This version of the Guide supersedes the version of June 2007. It takes on board the decisions made by the IMF’s Executive Board at the time of the Seventh Review of the Fund's Data Standards Initiatives in December 2008 to align the GDDS and Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) data categories. At that time, the Executive Board also decided to further enhance the GDDS to focus more on data dissemination, both to provide immediate benefit to a country’s policymakers and to facilitate a country’s graduation to the SDDS. In February 2012, at the time of the Eighth Review of the Fund's Data Standards Initiatives, the Executive Board decided to leverage the plans for improvement by focusing further and prioritizing the delivery of technical assistance in statistics. The Guide is expected to continue to be updated as the GDDS evolves.

Exchange Rate Assessments

Author: Jaewoo Lee
Publisher: IMF's Occasional Paper
Size: 60.58 MB
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Exchange Rate Assessments from the Author: Jaewoo Lee. As part of this mandate, since the mid-1990s the IMF Consultative Group on Exchange Rate Issues (CGER) has provided exchange rate assessments for a number of advanced economies from a multilateral perspective, with the aim of informing the country-specific analysis of the IMF's Article IV staff reports and fostering multilateral consistency. These assessments are additional tools at the disposal of the IMF staff country desks, which are responsible for formulating exchange rate assessments as part of the Fund's bilateral surveillance, another of the IMF's core responsibilities.

The Imli Manual On International Maritime Law

Author: David Joseph Attard
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199683921
Size: 57.22 MB
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The Imli Manual On International Maritime Law from the Author: David Joseph Attard. This three-volume Manual on International Maritime Law presents a systematic analysis of the history and contemporary development of international maritime law by leading contributors from across the world. Prepared in cooperation with the International Maritime Law Institute, the International Maritime Organization's research and training institute, this a uniquely comprehensive study of this fundamental area of international law. Volume I: The Law of the Sea addresses the major issues which arise in the law of the sea. It provides a detailed understanding of the historical development of the law of the sea; the role of the International Maritime Organization; the law surrounding maritime zones; the legal regime of islands; the international sea-bed area; the legal regime governing marine scientific research; the rights and obligations of land-locked and geographically disadvantaged states; the legal regime of Arctic and Antarctic; and the settlements of disputes. This volume also considers the ways in which human rights and the law of the sea interact. The forthcoming Volume II will address shipping law; Volume III will provide analysis of marine environmental law and maritime security law. The full three-volume Manual will set out the entirety of international maritime law, re-stating and re-examining its fundamental principles, how it is enacted, and the issues that are shaping its future. It will be a superlative resource for those working with or studying this area of law.

International Law And The Classification Of Conflicts

Author: Elizabeth Wilmshurst
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199657750
Size: 48.56 MB
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International Law And The Classification Of Conflicts from the Author: Elizabeth Wilmshurst. International law separates international from non-international conflicts. This book discusses how this categorization operates, identifying the legal questions raised. Case studies from Colombia to Iraq show how this classification impacts on issues like detention in armed conflict and the relationship between human rights and humanitarian law.