Plato Moral And Political Ideals

Author: Adela Marion Adam
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107401860
Size: 52.13 MB
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Plato Moral And Political Ideals from the Author: Adela Marion Adam. Originally published during the early part of the twentieth century, the Cambridge Manuals of Science and Literature were designed to provide concise introductions to a broad range of topics. They were written by experts for the general reader and combined a comprehensive approach to knowledge with an emphasis on accessibility. Plato: Moral and Political Ideals by Adela Marion Adam, first printed in 1913, deals with the main substance of Plato's philosophy of ethics and politics, set within the context of his intellectual debt to Socrates.

Plato S Moral And Political Philosophy

Author: Gerald Cardenas Cantu
ISBN: 9781109691245
Size: 43.10 MB
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Plato S Moral And Political Philosophy from the Author: Gerald Cardenas Cantu. Interpretations of the relation between Plato's political and moral philosophy are mired in controversy. What is the polis' good? What is individual happiness? Is the polis' good reducible to individual happiness, or is it something above and beyond? Is individual happiness reducible to one's contribution to the polis' good, or is it defined independently? Consideration of these questions is tied up with the metaphysics of the polis, for different metaphysical views yield different answers. Chapter 1 exposits and criticizes two main views in the literature. Neither view satisfies the condition of adequacy that interpretations of Plato's political philosophy must be compatible with two prima facie theses: The first is an ethical thesis stating that individual happiness is irreducible to the polis' good. The second is a political thesis stating that the polis' good is irreducible to individual happiness. Political organicism holds that the polis is an organism and individuals are organically dependent on the polis. Organic dependence violates the ethical thesis since it has the implication that individual happiness is defined by one's contribution to the polis' good, for it as senseless to ask whether the individual has value apart from the polis as it is to ask whether a hand has value apart from the organism to which it is attached. Individualism holds that the polis is reducible to features of individuals. This metaphysical account leads to the view the polis' good is nothing but the aggregate of individual happiness, which violates the political thesis. In chapter 2 I develop an interpretation that does satisfy the condition of adequacy. Weak organicism establishes the political thesis while remaining logically consistent with the ethical thesis. Weak organicism includes both the view that the polis is an organic whole (whose good is organic unity) composed of classes of functionally integrated individuals and a Platonic account of the mereological relations of the polis implying that individuals as such are not structurally dependent on the whole polis (whereas individuals qua citizens, i.e., individuals instantiating a sortal part or class, are structurally dependent). These relations make conceptual space for the possibility that the happiness of individuals as such is non-reductive, the ethical thesis expressly accepted by Plato and which is incompatible with political organicism. Chapter 3 considers the relation between the polis' good and individual happiness. It assesses a specific individualistic argument accounting for that relation through a case study of the primitive polis, from which the evidence of the individualistic argument is derived. I show that the individualistic conclusion that the polis' good is derivative of the good of realizing individual happiness does not follow from the evidence that the end of the polis is the realization of individual happiness. This criticism deflates individualism as a way of accounting for the relation between the polis' good and individual happiness. Thereafter I outline my view, according to which the polis' good and individual happiness are irreducible to one another and of coordinate importance. Weak organicism is consistent with Plato's ethical thesis, but it does not establish it. In chapters 4 and 5, I exposit a non-reductive conception of individual happiness and argue that all individuals in the polis are happy. I focus specially on the happiness of workers, since the guardians' happiness is much discussed in the literature. Chapter 4 frames the issue in terms of showing that individuals are happy if they are capable of satisfying the necessary condition that they are virtuous. Then I give a dispositional account of virtue, which I call genuine virtue. Genuine virtue implies that in order to be virtuous, individuals must have each virtue as a disposition: they must choose virtuous actions from settled patterns of judgment. Philosophic virtue qualifies genuine virtue insofar as wisdom is had with knowledge. Since knowledge is an unknown variable, and therefore the content of the attitudinal dispositions of philosophers is unknown, it is not clear they would choose just acts from settled patterns of judgment. Nevertheless, I offer reasons for thinking philosophers would have dispositions to choose just actions for the sake of inner justice, which is sufficient to satisfy the conditions of genuine virtue. Chapter 5 considers whether workers can be virtuous.

The Woman Question In Plato S Republic

Author: Mary Townsend
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 1498542700
Size: 65.91 MB
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The Woman Question In Plato S Republic from the Author: Mary Townsend. In this book, Mary Townsend proposes that, contrary to the current scholarship on Plato's Republic, Socrates does not in fact set out to prove the weakness of women. Rather, she argues that close attention to the drama of the Republic reveals that Plato dramatizes the reluctance of men to allow women into the public sphere and offers a deeply aporetic vision of women’s nature and political position—a vision full of concern not only for the human community, but for the desires of women themselves.

Classics Of Moral And Political Theory Fifth Edition

Author: Michael L. Morgan
Publisher: Hackett Publishing
ISBN: 1603847251
Size: 64.86 MB
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Classics Of Moral And Political Theory Fifth Edition from the Author: Michael L. Morgan. The fifth edition of Michael L Morgan's Classics of Moral & Political Theory broadens the scope and increases the versatility of this landmark anthology by offering new selections from Aristotle's Politics, Aquinas' Disputed Questions on Virtue & Treatise on Law, as well as the entirety of Locke's Letter Concerning Toleration, Kant's to Perpetual Peace, and Nietzsche's On the Advantage and Disadvantage of History for Life.

After The Natural Law

Author: John Lawrence Hill
Publisher: Ignatius Press
ISBN: 1621640175
Size: 75.79 MB
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After The Natural Law from the Author: John Lawrence Hill. The "natural law" worldview developed over the course of almost two thousand years beginning with Plato and Aristotle and culminating with St. Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth century. This tradition holds that the world is ordered, intelligible and good, that there are objective moral truths which we can know and that human beings can achieve true happiness only by following our inborn nature, which draws us toward our own perfection. Most accounts of the natural law are based on a God-centered understanding of the world. After the Natural Law traces this tradition from Plato and Aristotle to Thomas Aquinas and then describes how and why modern philosophers such as Descartes, Locke and Hobbes began to chip away at this foundation. The book argues that natural law is a necessary foundation for our most important moral and political values – freedom, human rights, equality, responsibility and human dignity, among others. Without a theory of natural law, these values lose their coherence: we literally cannot make sense of them given the assumptions of modern philosophy. Part I of the book traces the development of natural law theory from Plato and Aristotle through the crowning achievement of Thomas Aquinas. Part II explores how modern philosophers have systematically chipped away at the only coherent foundation for these values. As a result, our most important moral and political ideals today are incoherent. Modern political and moral thinkers have been led either to dilute the meaning of such terms as freedom or the moral good – or abandon these ideas altogether. Thus, modern philosophy and political thought are leading us either toward anarchy or totalitarianism. The conclusion, entitled "Why God Matters", shows how even the philosophical assumptions of the natural law depend on a personal God.

Kant S Platonic Revolution In Moral And Political Philosophy

Author: T. K. Seung
Size: 70.19 MB
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Kant S Platonic Revolution In Moral And Political Philosophy from the Author: T. K. Seung. For more than two centuries, Kant scholars have operated on the unquestioned premise that Kant's three Critiques offered a systematic exposition of his philosophy. But this unitary view, argues T. K. Seung, is gravely mistaken. In Kant's Platonic Revolution in Moral and Political Philosophy, Seung shows how each of the three works represents a major reformulation of the initial commitment to Platonism which Kant had made in his Inaugural Dissertation of 1770. For Kant, Platonic Forms are the basic ideas for constructing moral, aesthetic, and political norms and standards. This is the essence of Kant's Platonic constructivism, which Seung explicates with comparisons to other programs of construction, such as Hobbesian conventionalism and Hegelian historicism. Finally, he clarifies the link between constructivism and deconstruction.

The Republic Of Plato Volume 1 Books I V

Author: Plato
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521059631
Size: 19.38 MB
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The Republic Of Plato Volume 1 Books I V from the Author: Plato. James Adam's edition of Plato's Republic with an introduction by D. A. Rees reviewing Adam's work on the language and meaning of the book.

Nature And Justice

Author: David Keyt
Publisher: Aristote. Traductions Et Etude
ISBN: 9789042933828
Size: 16.82 MB
Format: PDF
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Nature And Justice from the Author: David Keyt. A collection of articles on Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Politics. The newly written introductory chapter offers a sketch of the metaphysical foundations of Plato's and Aristotle's ethical and political philosophy. Two chapters on the Republic examine Plato's account of justice and his use of the ship of state metaphor. The remainder of the book is devoted to Aristotle and discusses such topics as his view of the best life for a man, his political naturalism, his proto-anarchism, his theory of distributive justice, and his ideal polis. The final chapters, also newly written, address the unattractive features of Aristotle's political ideal-natural slavery, the subordination of women, and the denigration of technical skill-and argue that these feature are in fact inconsistent with the basic principles of his ethical and political philosophy. The volume ends with a defense of the claim that Aristotle's political philosophy, once shorn of its excrescences, is updateable to the twenty-first century.


Author: Robert Hall
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134339194
Size: 24.71 MB
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Plato from the Author: Robert Hall. First published in 1981 this unique study discusses the evolution of Plato's thought through the actual developments in Athenian democracy, the book also demonstrates Plato's continuing responses to changes in political theory and argues for a new understanding of Plato's goals for the state and his ultimate concern for the moral well-being of the citizens.

Understanding Plato S Republic

Author: Gerasimos Santas
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444320145
Size: 37.15 MB
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Understanding Plato S Republic from the Author: Gerasimos Santas. Understanding Plato’s Republic is an accessible introduction to the concepts of justice that inform Plato’s Republic, elucidating the ancient philosopher's main argument that we would be better off leading just lives rather than unjust ones Provides a much needed up to date discussion of The Republic's fundamental ideas and Plato's main argument Discusses the unity and coherence of The Republic as a whole Written in a lively style, informed by over 50 years of teaching experience Reveals rich insights into a timeless classic that holds remarkable relevance to the modern world