Physical And Chemical Processes In The Aquatic Environment

Author: Erik R. Christensen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111891161X
Size: 16.76 MB
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Physical And Chemical Processes In The Aquatic Environment from the Author: Erik R. Christensen. There is need in environmental research for a book on fresh waters including rivers and lakes. Compared with other books on the topic, this book has a unique outline in that it follows pollution from sources to impact. Included in the text is the treatment of various tracers, ranging from pathogens to stable isotopes of elements and providing a comprehensive discussion which is lacking in many other books on pollution control of natural waters. Geophysical processes are discussed emphasizing mixing of water, interaction between water and the atmosphere, and sedimentation processes. Important geochemistry processes occurring in natural waters are described as are the processes specific to nutrients, organic pollutants, metals, and pathogens in subsequent chapters. Each of these chapters includes an introduction on the selected groups, followed by the physicochemical properties which are the most relevant to their behavior in natural waters, and the theories and models to describe their speciation, transport and transformation. The book also includes the most up to date information including a discussion on emerging pollutants such as brominated and phosphate flame retardants, perflurochemicals, and pharmaceutical and personal care products. Due to its importance an ecotoxicology chapter has been included featuring molecular biological methods, nanoparticles, and comparison of the basis of biotic ligand model with the Weibull dose-response model. Finally, the last chapter briefly summarizes the regulations on ambient water quality.

Aquatic Chemical Kinetics

Author: Werner Stumm
Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
ISBN: 9780471510291
Size: 10.49 MB
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Aquatic Chemical Kinetics from the Author: Werner Stumm. Aquatic Chemistry An Introduction Emphasizing Chemical Equilibria in Natural Waters Second Edition Edited by Werner Stumm and James J. Morgan This second edition of the renowned classic unites concepts, applications, and techniques with the growing amounts of data in the field. Expanded treatment is offered on steady-state and dynamic models employing mass-balance approaches and kinetic information. New chapters address such topics as: environmental aspects of aquatic chemistry; new material on organic compounds in natural water systems; the use of stable and radioactive isotopes in chemical and physical processes; the latest advances in marine chemistry; solid-solution interface; kinetic considerations of equilibria; metal-ligand interactions; and an expanded compilation of thermodynamic data for important reactions in natural water systems. 1981 (0 471-04831-3) Cloth 780 pp. (0 471-09173-1) Paper Chemical Processes in Lakes Edited by Werner Stumm This is a multidisciplinary analysis of recent research on the physical, chemical, and biological processes in aquatic systems. Coverage includes: distribution of elements and compounds in water and sediments; sedimentation and sediment accumulation of nutrients and pollutants; eurtophication and acidification; atmospheric deposition; redox-related geochemistry and sediment-water exchange of nutrients and metals; sediment dating and paleolimnology; and steady-state and dynamic models. Most chapters focus on the role of biological processes and the coupling of elemental cycles by organisms. 1985 (0 471-88261-5) 435 pp. Principles of Aquatic Chemistry Francois M. M. Morel Here is a quantitative treatment of the chemical principles that govern the composition of natural waters. Features include an in-depth examination of the use of conservation principles in chemical systems, a review of thermodynamic and kinetic principles applicable to aquatic systems, and a novel presentation of a systematic methodology for equilibrium calculations. Detailed coverage is provided on the topic of aquatic chemistry, following the traditional divisions of acid-base, precipitation-dissolution, coordination, redox and surface reactions. 1983 (0 471-08683-5) 446 pp.

Ecohydraulics

Author: Ian Maddock
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118526740
Size: 55.43 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Ecohydraulics from the Author: Ian Maddock. Ecohydraulics: An Integrated Approachprovides a research level text which highlights recent developments of this emerging and expanding field. With a focus on interdisciplinary research the text examines:- the evolution and scope of ecohydraulics interactions between hydraulics, hydrology, fluvial geomorphology and aquatic ecology the application of habitat modelling in ecohydraulic studies state of the art methodological developments and approaches detailed case studies including fish passage design and the management of environmental flow regimes research needs and the future of ecohydraulics research The contributions offer broad geographic coverage to encapsulate the wide range of approaches, case studies and methods used to conduct ecohydraulics research. The book considers a range of spatial and temporal scales of relevance and aquatic organisms ranging from algae and macrophytes to macroinvertebrates and fish. River management and restoration are also considered in detail, making this volume of direct relevance to those concerned with cutting edge research and its application for water resource management. Aimed at academics and postgraduate researchers in departments of physical geography, earth sciences, environmental science, environmental management, civil engineering, biology, zoology, botany and ecology; Ecohydraulics: An Integrated Approach will be of direct relevance to academics, researchers and professionals working in environmental research organisations, national agencies and consultancies.

Monitoring Ecological Condition At Regional Scales

Author: Shabeg S. Sandhu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401149763
Size: 68.64 MB
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Monitoring Ecological Condition At Regional Scales from the Author: Shabeg S. Sandhu. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program was created by EPA to develop the capability for tracking the changing conditions of our natural resources and to give environmental policy the advantages ofa sound scientific understanding of trends. Former EPA Administrators recognized early that contemporary monitoring programs could not even quantify simple unknowns like the number of lakes suffering from acid rain, let along determine if national control policies were benefiting these lakes. Today, adding to acidification impacts are truly complex problems such as determining the effects of climate change, of increases in ultraviolet light, toxic chemicals, eutrophication and critical habitat loss. Also today, the Government Performance and Results Act seeks to have agencies develop performance standards based on results rather than simply on levels of programmatic activities. The charge to EMAP of ecosystems is, therefore, the same today as it was a with respect to measuring the condition decade ago. We welcome the increasing urgency for sound scientific monitoring methods and data by efforts to protect and improve the environment. Systematic nationwide monitoring of natural resources is more than anyone program can accomplish, however. In an era of declining budgets, it is crucial that monitoring programs at all levels of government coordinate and share environmental data. EMAP resources are dwarfed by the more than $500 million spent on federal monitoring activities each year.

Air Pollution Modeling And Its Application X

Author: Sven-Erik Gryning
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461518172
Size: 32.81 MB
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Air Pollution Modeling And Its Application X from the Author: Sven-Erik Gryning. The 20th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and Its Application was held in Valencia, Spain, during late 1993. At this conference, a new record of abstracts was submitted, a new record of scientists participated, and a new record of countries was represented. This clearly indicates society's continuous and growing interest in, as well as importance of, the complexities associated with the modelling of air pollution. The conference addressed the following main subjects: integrated regional modelling, global and long-range transport, new modelling developments, accidental releases, and model assess ment and verification. In addition, two project-oriented workshops were organized as part of the conference. The many contributing authors and scientists taking active part in the discussions following the papers, have made this proceeding a record of the current status in the field of air pollu tion modelling. We want to express our gratitude to their efforts. We also wish to extend our gratitude to the sponsors that made this conference possible. In addition to financial support from NATOjCCMS the conference received contributions from CEAM, the European Asso ciation for the Science of Air Pollution, Danish Center for Air Research, and Ris0 National Laboratory. A special grant was given by NATOjCCMS to facilitate attendance of scientists from Central and Eastern Europe. We also wish to express our gratitude to Rosa Salvador and Pilar Zamora of CEAM, who laboriously organized the conference pre-proceedings, and to Anne N0rregaard and Ulla Riis Christiansen of Ris0 National Laboratory, who seved as conference secretariat.

Chemical Processes In Marine Environments

Author: Antonio Gianguzza
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540666189
Size: 73.99 MB
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Chemical Processes In Marine Environments from the Author: Antonio Gianguzza. This book discusses recent developments in the study of chemical processes and equilibria in the marine environment and in the air/water and water/sediment interfaces. The chemical cycle of carbon as well as the effect of organic substances on the speciation and distribution of inorganic and organometallic substances are extensively discussed. Much of the recent progress in the area is the direct result of advanced analytical technologies and chemometric applications which are highlighted in the book.

Aquatic Surface Chemistry

Author: Werner Stumm
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471829959
Size: 40.82 MB
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Aquatic Surface Chemistry from the Author: Werner Stumm. The solid-solution interface. Adsorption mechanisms in aquatic surface chemistry. Adsorption mechanisms. Organic compounds. Inorganic compounds. The electric double layer at the solid-solution interface. Electronic work function and potential of zero charge. Single-crystal electrodes. The problem of polycrystalline electrodes. Specific ionic adsorption. Adsorption of neutral molecules. Chemisorption and surface mobility. A two-phase model for the interpretation of proton and metal ion interaction with charged polyelectrolyte gels and their linear analogs. Development of the unified model. Application of the unified model to the interpretation of proton and metal-ion interaction with various charged polymeric systems. The surface chemistry of oxides, hydroxides, and oxide minerals. Coordination chemistry of the oxide-water interface. Acid-base characteristics of surface hydroxyl groups. Metal complexes. Adsorption of anions. Ternary surface complexes. Aspects of the molecular structure in surface complexes; spectroscopic investigations. Cation adsorption. Anion and organic ligand adsorption. Final considerations. Surface chemical processes in soil. Soil materials. Available models. Applicability of the models to the soil water system. The formation and dissolution of solid phases. The hydrolysis of iron in synthetic, biological, and aquatic media. Mononuclear aquahydroxo complexes of iron (III) and the primary steps of polynuclear growth. Hydrolysis in salt solutions. Iron hydrolysis in cells. Aquatic media: hydrolysis induced by oxidation of ferrous ions. The morphological variety of hydrolysis products. The dissolution of oxides and aluminum silicates; examples of surface-coordination-controlled kinetics. Surface-controlled dissolution. The ligand-promoted dissolution of ... The proton-promoted dissolution of hydrous oxides. Kinetic dependence on solute concentrations; fractional reaction orders. Weathering. The role of chemical weathering in the neutralization of acids. Reductive dissolution of metal oxides. Oxidation state and solubility. The geochemical setting. Dissolution without changes in oxidation state. Mechanism of reductive dissolution. Kinetics of reductive dissolution: simple models. Kinetics of reductive dissolution: additional considerations. Adsorption of redox-inert species. Effects of oxide mineralogy and surface structure. Experimental verification of theory. Monte Carlo simulations of surface reaction rate laws. Surface reaction rate laws: simple models. Dislocations. Monte Carlo model. Results and discussion. Dislocations with a strain field included. New evidence for the mechanisms of dissolution of silicate minerals. Evidence of surface reaction control during dissolution of silicate minerals. New data on the dissolution of silicates and the surface reaction hypothesis. Concluding remarks. Regulating the composition of natural waters. Surface chemical aspects of the distribution and fate of metal ions in lakes. Interactions of metal ions with surfaces of natural particles. Interaction of metal ions with biota: simple chemical models. The role of settling particles in the vertical transport of metal ions in lakes. Interpretation of metal complexation by heterogeneous complexants. Background: metals and ligands. Measurement of metal-ligand complexation equilibrium data. Representation of complexation equilibria. Application of the G(K') function to interpretation of heterogeneous complexant properties (Using Metal-Fulvic Interaction). Particle-particle interactions. Particle transport. Chemical aspects. A physicochemical synthesis. Environmental applications. The role of colloids in the partitioning of solutes in natural waters. Surface reactions of ions and polar compounds. Organic film solvation of hydrophobic compounds. Strange observations. Experimental artifacts. Reversibility of colloid aggregation. Artifacts and reality. Coagulation kinetics and simulations of particle-size distributions. Size distributions in peptizable suspensions. Apparent partition coefficients in natural waters. Abiotic transformation of organic chemicals at the particle-water interface. Kinetic models and equations. Heterogeneous organic reactions in sediment suspensions. Heterogeneous photoreactions. The role particles in regulating the composition of seawater. Particle in the ocean. Classification of deep-ocean profiles. Deep-ocean profiles of the elements. From molecules to planetary environments: understanding global change. Change. Observation. Earth convection: megaprocesses: geochemical cycles. Erosion. Bioprecipitation.

Bioavailability

Author: Jerry Hamelink
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781566700863
Size: 41.55 MB
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Bioavailability from the Author: Jerry Hamelink. Practical and provocative, Bioavailability reviews prevalent understanding of the physical-chemical-biological mechanisms that control the bioavailability of both organic and inorganic contaminants in aquatic environments. Discusses the complex issues that surround many regulatory issues Emphasizes the need to identify and control that portion of the total concentration that is biologically available and can cause adverse effects, i.e., "active" Examines the influence of dynamic factors, such as pH, alkalinity, and light on these mechanisms Addresses the subject of speciation for both organic and inorganic contaminants

Biophysico Chemical Processes Of Heavy Metals And Metalloids In Soil Environments

Author: Antonio Violante
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470175477
Size: 72.78 MB
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Biophysico Chemical Processes Of Heavy Metals And Metalloids In Soil Environments from the Author: Antonio Violante. Written by a multidisciplinary group of soil and environmental scientists, Biophysico-Chemical Processes of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soil Environments provides the scientific community with a critical qualitative and quantitative review of the fundamentals of the processes of pollutants in soil environments. The book covers pollutants' speciation, mobility, bioavailability and toxicity, and impacts on development of innovative restoration strategies. In addition, the development of innovative remediation strategies for polluted soils is covered.

Environmental Monitoring And Characterization

Author: Janick F. Artiola
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780120644773
Size: 45.78 MB
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Environmental Monitoring And Characterization from the Author: Janick F. Artiola. Outlines the newest ways that environmental samples should be taken, analyzed, and interpreted.