Niger

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Niger from the Author: . "Niger's economic performance suffered from the harmful effects of several exogenous shocks in 2013. Below average rainfall in the second half of the year, along with the deterioration of the security situation in the region, adversely affected real GDP growth. The combination of these shocks also impacted the fiscal and external positions, owing to increased security-related spending and lower exports and FDIs, and put additional strains on the fragile socio-economic environment, characterized by high food insecurity and weak provision of social services. Inflation remains low. Program: Despite these developments, the authorities have shown strong commitment to the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) program (approved on March 16, 2012 in an amount of SDR 78.96 million or 120 percent of quota). Program slippages in late 2012 resulted in three of the five performance criteria being missed. The implementation of key corrective measures, including strengthened revenue collections, has brought the program back on track, but overspending on current expenditures (half of which related to security) combined with temporary delays in receipt of external budgetary assistance, resulted in the end-June 2013 performance criterion on domestic financing being missed. In addition, reflecting insufficient coordination within the government, the performance criterion on the contracting of nonconcessional external debt was also missed. The authorities request waivers for the nonobservance of the missed performance criteria on the basis of corrective actions taken, including institutional changes to improve debt management. The prior action for the completion of this review was met, and progress continues to be made in implementing the structural benchmarks. Outlook and risks: The medium-term outlook appears favorable, with robust growth benefitting from important natural resource sector investments. However, the outlook is vulnerable to high domestic and external risks, including potential spillovers from the security situation in the region and climatic shocks. New borrowing arrangements will need to be managed prudently to contain debt vulnerabilities. Staff views: Staff recommends the completion of the second and third reviews under the ECF. Completion of these reviews will result in disbursement of an amount equivalent to SDR 22.56 million under the ECF arrangement"--Abstract.

Niger Second And Third Reviews Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Requests For Waivers Of Nonobservance Of Performance Criteria And For Extension Of The Program Period And Arrangement Rephrasing Of Disbursements And Modification Of Performance Criteria Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Niger

Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498338836
Size: 55.31 MB
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Niger Second And Third Reviews Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Requests For Waivers Of Nonobservance Of Performance Criteria And For Extension Of The Program Period And Arrangement Rephrasing Of Disbursements And Modification Of Performance Criteria Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Niger from the Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.. This paper discusses Niger’s Second and Third Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement and Requests for Waivers of Nonobservance of Performance Criteria and for Extension of the Program Period and Arrangement. Fiscal performance was broadly in line with program targets. The medium-term outlook appears favorable, with robust growth benefiting from important natural resource sector investments. However, the outlook is vulnerable to high domestic and external risks, including potential spillovers from the security situation in the region and climatic shocks. The IMF staff recommends the completion of the second and third reviews under the ECF.

Niger 2014 Article Iv Consultation And Fourth And Fifth Reviews Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Request For Waiver Of Nonobservance Of Performance Criteria Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Niger

Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498310559
Size: 53.19 MB
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Niger 2014 Article Iv Consultation And Fourth And Fifth Reviews Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Request For Waiver Of Nonobservance Of Performance Criteria Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Niger from the Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.. This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that Niger’s overall macroeconomic performance has been broadly satisfactory. After the economic slowdown in 2013 owing to the regional security situation and adverse climatic conditions, economic growth has rebounded in 2014. Inflation has been contained, in part owing to the government’s efforts to improve food security and the functioning of food markets. However, program performance has been mixed, as a combination of unexpected security and food expenditures and a shortfall in external financing have strained fiscal management. In the near term, containing the fiscal deficit through measures to improve tax policy and administration, reform customs administration, and reduce exemptions is essential to ensure sustainability.

Liberia Third Review Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Request For Waiver Of Nonobservance Of Performance Criterion And Modification Of Performance Criteria Staff Report And Press Release

Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498397875
Size: 48.87 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Liberia Third Review Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Request For Waiver Of Nonobservance Of Performance Criterion And Modification Of Performance Criteria Staff Report And Press Release from the Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.. This paper focuses on Liberia’s Third Review Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement and Request for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion (PC) and Modification of Performance Criteria. Real GDP grew at 8.7 percent in 2013 and is projected to decline to 5.9 percent in 2014 as mining production decelerates. Most end-December 2013 PCs and indicative targets (ITs) were met, except for the PC on government revenue and the IT on external borrowing. Four out of five structural benchmarks were met on time. The IMF staff supports the completion of the third ECF review.

High Value Natural Resources And Post Conflict Peacebuilding

Author: Päivi Lujala
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136536698
Size: 16.83 MB
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High Value Natural Resources And Post Conflict Peacebuilding from the Author: Päivi Lujala. For most post-conflict countries, the transition to peace is daunting. In countries with high-value natural resources – including oil, gas, diamonds, other minerals, and timber –the stakes are unusually high and peacebuilding is especially challenging. Resource-rich post-conflict countries face both unique problems and opportunities. They enter peacebuilding with an advantage that distinguishes them from other war-torn societies: access to natural resources that can yield substantial revenues for alleviating poverty, compensating victims, creating jobs, and rebuilding the country and the economy. Evidence shows, however, that this opportunity is often wasted. Resource-rich countries do not have a better record in sustaining peace. In fact, resource-related conflicts are more likely to relapse. Focusing on the relationship between high-value natural resources and peacebuilding in post-conflict settings, this book identifies opportunities and strategies for converting resource revenues to a peaceful future. Its thirty chapters draw on the experiences of forty-one researchers and practitioners – as well as the broader literature – and cover a range of key issues, including resource extraction, revenue sharing and allocation, and institution building. The book provides a concise theoretical and practical framework that policy makers, researchers, practitioners, and students can use to understand and address the complex interplay between the management of high-value resources and peace. High-Value Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding is part of a global initiative led by the Environmental Law Institute (ELI), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the University of Tokyo, and McGill University to identify and analyze lessons in natural resource management and post-conflict peacebuilding. The project has generated six edited books of case studies and analyses, with contributions from practitioners, policy makers, and researchers. Other books in the series address land; water; livelihoods; assessing and restoring natural resources; and governance.

Risks And Reconstruction

Author: Michael M. Cernea
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821344446
Size: 76.42 MB
Format: PDF
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Risks And Reconstruction from the Author: Michael M. Cernea. This book offers a multidimensional comparative analysis of two large groups of the world's displaced populations : resettlers uprooted by development and refugees fleeing military conflicts or natural calamities. The authors explore common central issues: the condition of being "displaced," the risks of impoverishment and destitu-tion, the rights and entitlements of those uprooted, and, most important, the means of reconstruction of their livelihoods. (Adapté de l'Introduction).

Expanding Job Opportunities In Ghana

Author: Maddalena Honorati
Publisher: Directions in Development
ISBN: 9781464809415
Size: 43.15 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Expanding Job Opportunities In Ghana from the Author: Maddalena Honorati. Ghana was, until very recently, a success story in Africa, achieving high and sustained growth and impressive poverty reduction. However, Ghana is now facing major challenges in diversifying its economy, sustaining growth, and making it more inclusive. Most of the new jobs that have been created in the past decade have been in low-earning, low-productivity trade services. Macroeconomic instability, limited diversification and growing inequities in Ghana s labor markets make it harder for the economy to create more jobs, and particularly, better jobs. Employment needs to expand in both urban areas, which will continue to grow rapidly, and rural areas, where poverty is still concentrated. The current fiscal and economic crisis is heightening the need for urgent reforms but limiting the room for maneuver and increasing pressure for a careful prioritization of policy actions. Going forward, Ghana will need to consider an integrated jobs strategy that addresses barriers to the business climate, deficiencies in skills, lack of competitiveness of job-creating sectors, problems with labor mobility, and the need for comprehensive labor market regulation. Ghana needs to diversify its economy through gains in productivity in sectors like agribusiness, transport, construction, energy, and information and communications technology (ICT) services. Productivity needs to be increased also in agriculture, in order to increase the earnings potential for the many poor who still work there. In particular, Ghana s youth and women need help in connecting to these jobs, through relevant skills development and services that target gaps in information about job opportunities. Even with significant effort, most of Ghana s population will continue to work in jobs characterized by low and fluctuating earnings for the foreseeable future, however, and they will need social safety nets that help them manage vulnerability to income shortfalls. More productive and inclusive jobs will help Ghana move to a second phase of structural transformation and develop into a modern middle-income economy.-

Encyclopedia Of Homelessness

Author: David Levinson
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 0761927514
Size: 64.21 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Encyclopedia Of Homelessness from the Author: David Levinson. A readerĘĽs guide is provided to assist readers in locating entries on related topics. It classifies entries into 14 general categories: Causes, Cities, Demography and Characteristics, Health issues, History, Housing, Legal issues, Advocacy and policy, Lifestyle issues, Organizations, Perceptions of homelessness, Populations, Research, Service systems and settings, World perspectives and issues.

Privacy And Freedom

Author: Alan Westin
Publisher: Ig Pub
ISBN: 9781935439974
Size: 49.23 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Privacy And Freedom from the Author: Alan Westin. A landmark text on privacy in the information age.