Niger

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Niger from the Author: . "Niger's economic performance suffered from the harmful effects of several exogenous shocks in 2013. Below average rainfall in the second half of the year, along with the deterioration of the security situation in the region, adversely affected real GDP growth. The combination of these shocks also impacted the fiscal and external positions, owing to increased security-related spending and lower exports and FDIs, and put additional strains on the fragile socio-economic environment, characterized by high food insecurity and weak provision of social services. Inflation remains low. Program: Despite these developments, the authorities have shown strong commitment to the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) program (approved on March 16, 2012 in an amount of SDR 78.96 million or 120 percent of quota). Program slippages in late 2012 resulted in three of the five performance criteria being missed. The implementation of key corrective measures, including strengthened revenue collections, has brought the program back on track, but overspending on current expenditures (half of which related to security) combined with temporary delays in receipt of external budgetary assistance, resulted in the end-June 2013 performance criterion on domestic financing being missed. In addition, reflecting insufficient coordination within the government, the performance criterion on the contracting of nonconcessional external debt was also missed. The authorities request waivers for the nonobservance of the missed performance criteria on the basis of corrective actions taken, including institutional changes to improve debt management. The prior action for the completion of this review was met, and progress continues to be made in implementing the structural benchmarks. Outlook and risks: The medium-term outlook appears favorable, with robust growth benefitting from important natural resource sector investments. However, the outlook is vulnerable to high domestic and external risks, including potential spillovers from the security situation in the region and climatic shocks. New borrowing arrangements will need to be managed prudently to contain debt vulnerabilities. Staff views: Staff recommends the completion of the second and third reviews under the ECF. Completion of these reviews will result in disbursement of an amount equivalent to SDR 22.56 million under the ECF arrangement"--Abstract.

Niger Second And Third Reviews Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Requests For Waivers Of Nonobservance Of Performance Criteria And For Extension Of The Program Period And Arrangement Rephrasing Of Disbursements And Modification Of Performance Criteria Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Niger

Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498347711
Size: 10.24 MB
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Niger Second And Third Reviews Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Requests For Waivers Of Nonobservance Of Performance Criteria And For Extension Of The Program Period And Arrangement Rephrasing Of Disbursements And Modification Of Performance Criteria Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Niger from the Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.. This paper discusses Niger’s Second and Third Reviews Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement and Requests for Waivers of Nonobservance of Performance Criteria and for Extension of the Program Period and Arrangement. Fiscal performance was broadly in line with program targets. The medium-term outlook appears favorable, with robust growth benefiting from important natural resource sector investments. However, the outlook is vulnerable to high domestic and external risks, including potential spillovers from the security situation in the region and climatic shocks. The IMF staff recommends the completion of the second and third reviews under the ECF.

Niger 2014 Article Iv Consultation And Fourth And Fifth Reviews Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Request For Waiver Of Nonobservance Of Performance Criteria Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Niger

Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498302742
Size: 10.89 MB
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Niger 2014 Article Iv Consultation And Fourth And Fifth Reviews Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Request For Waiver Of Nonobservance Of Performance Criteria Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Niger from the Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.. This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that Niger’s overall macroeconomic performance has been broadly satisfactory. After the economic slowdown in 2013 owing to the regional security situation and adverse climatic conditions, economic growth has rebounded in 2014. Inflation has been contained, in part owing to the government’s efforts to improve food security and the functioning of food markets. However, program performance has been mixed, as a combination of unexpected security and food expenditures and a shortfall in external financing have strained fiscal management. In the near term, containing the fiscal deficit through measures to improve tax policy and administration, reform customs administration, and reduce exemptions is essential to ensure sustainability.

Liberia Third Review Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Request For Waiver Of Nonobservance Of Performance Criterion And Modification Of Performance Criteria Staff Report And Press Release

Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498397875
Size: 52.97 MB
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Liberia Third Review Under The Extended Credit Facility Arrangement And Request For Waiver Of Nonobservance Of Performance Criterion And Modification Of Performance Criteria Staff Report And Press Release from the Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.. This paper focuses on Liberia’s Third Review Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement and Request for Waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criterion (PC) and Modification of Performance Criteria. Real GDP grew at 8.7 percent in 2013 and is projected to decline to 5.9 percent in 2014 as mining production decelerates. Most end-December 2013 PCs and indicative targets (ITs) were met, except for the PC on government revenue and the IT on external borrowing. Four out of five structural benchmarks were met on time. The IMF staff supports the completion of the third ECF review.

International Monetary Fund Handbook Its Functions Policies And Operations Epub

Author: Parmeshwar Ramlogan
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1452727147
Size: 58.42 MB
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International Monetary Fund Handbook Its Functions Policies And Operations Epub from the Author: Parmeshwar Ramlogan. This series contains practical how-to information for economists and includes topics such as tax policy, balance of payments statistics, external debt statistics, foreign exchange reserve management, and financial sector assessment.

The Political Economy Of Energy Subsidy Reform

Author: Gabriela Inchauste
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464810087
Size: 46.56 MB
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The Political Economy Of Energy Subsidy Reform from the Author: Gabriela Inchauste. This book proposes a simple framework for understanding the political economy of subsidy reform and applies it to four in-depth country studies covering more than 30 distinct episodes of reform. Five key lessons emerge. First, energy subsidies often follow a life cycle, beginning as a way to stabilize prices and reduce exposure to price volatility for low-income consumers. However, as they grow in size and political power, they become entrenched. Second, subsidy reform strategies vary because the underlying political economy problems vary. When benefits are concentrated, satisfying (or isolating) interest groups with alternative policies is an important condition for effective reform. When benefits are diffuse, it can be much harder to identify and manage the political coalition needed for reform. Third, governments vary in their administrative and political capacities to implement difficult energy subsidy reforms. Fourth, improvements in social protection systems are often critical to the success of reforms because they make it possible to target assistance to those most in need. Finally, the most interesting cases involve governments that take a strategic approach to the challenges of political economy. In these settings, fixing energy subsidies is central to the governments’ missions of retaining political power and reorganizing how the government delivers benefits to the population. These cases are examples of “reform engineering,†? where governments actively seek to create the capacity to implement alternative policies, depoliticize tariffs, and build credibility around alternative policies. The most successful reforms involve active efforts by policy leaders to identify the political forces supporting energy subsidies and redirect or inoculate them.

Risks And Reconstruction

Author: Michael M. Cernea
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821344446
Size: 33.45 MB
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Risks And Reconstruction from the Author: Michael M. Cernea. This book offers a multidimensional comparative analysis of two large groups of the world's displaced populations : resettlers uprooted by development and refugees fleeing military conflicts or natural calamities. The authors explore common central issues: the condition of being "displaced," the risks of impoverishment and destitu-tion, the rights and entitlements of those uprooted, and, most important, the means of reconstruction of their livelihoods. (Adapté de l'Introduction).

Imf Financial Operations 2014

Author: International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1484317440
Size: 19.63 MB
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Imf Financial Operations 2014 from the Author: International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.. IMF Financial Operations 2014 provides a broad introduction to how the IMF fulfills its mission through its financial activities. It covers the financial structure and operations of the IMF and also provides background detail of the financial statements for the IMF’s activities during the most recent financial year. This publication updates a previous report entitled Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF, first published in 1986 and last issued in 2001 (the sixth edition). That 2001 report reflected the seismic shifts in the global economy and in the IMF’s structure and operations that occurred after the fall of the Soviet Union and the various currency and financial crises of the 1990s. This revised and updated report covers more recent developments, including measures taken in response to the global financial crisis of 2007-09 and the institutional reforms aimed at ensuring that the IMF’s governance structure evolves in line with developments in the global economy, as well as reforms to the IMF’s income model.

Encyclopedia Of Homelessness

Author: David Levinson
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 0761927514
Size: 73.40 MB
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Encyclopedia Of Homelessness from the Author: David Levinson. A readerĘĽs guide is provided to assist readers in locating entries on related topics. It classifies entries into 14 general categories: Causes, Cities, Demography and Characteristics, Health issues, History, Housing, Legal issues, Advocacy and policy, Lifestyle issues, Organizations, Perceptions of homelessness, Populations, Research, Service systems and settings, World perspectives and issues.