Methods In Non Aqueous Enzymology

Author: Munishwar N. Gupta
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3034884729
Size: 51.73 MB
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Methods In Non Aqueous Enzymology from the Author: Munishwar N. Gupta. Extending the range of enzymatic catalysis by using non-aqueous media has now developed into a powerful approach in biochemistry and biotechnology. One peculiar feature which distinguishes it from the conventional enzymology (carried out in aqueous buffers) is that the awareness of different parameters that control and influence the behaviour of enzymes in such environments has emerged rather slowly. Science is about being able to repeat what somebody else has done. Absence of knowledge about such well-defined parameters/fac tors has sometimes made some workers rather cautious and diffident about using this approach in their laboratories. But for this, non-aqueous enzymol ogy would be more widely practised. It is these thoughts that made me feel that the availability of some well-defined protocols for various applications invol ving enzymes in non-aqueous environments would further catalyze the growth of this area. Hence this book, in which each chapter has some protocols in a specific area. The protocols are preceded by brief background material. The early chapters, which are of general importance, concern control of water ac tivity and stabilization via immobilization. Some subsequent chapters provide the protocols for transformations involving lipids and carbohydrates, peptide synthesis, and preparation of chiral compounds. The disproportionate focus on lipases is not a coincidence; this class of enzymes has been used more often than others in non-aqueous enzymology.

Organic Synthesis With Enzymes In Non Aqueous Media

Author: Giacomo Carrea
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527621733
Size: 69.28 MB
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Organic Synthesis With Enzymes In Non Aqueous Media from the Author: Giacomo Carrea. Closing a gap in the literature, this comprehensive book examines and discusses different non-aqueous systems from organic solvents to ionic liquids for synthetic applications, thus opening the door to new successful methods for biocatalytic reactions. It gathers into one handy source the information otherwise widely spread throughout the literature, combining useful background information with a number of synthetic examples, including industrial scale processes for pharmaceutical and fine chemicals. Extremely well structured, the text introduces the fundamentals of non-aqueous enzymology, before going on to new reaction media and synthetic applications using hydrolases and non-hydrolytic enzymes. The one-stop reference for everyone working in this hot field.

Industrial Enzymology

Author: A.n. Shukla
Publisher: Discovery Publishing House
ISBN: 9788183564137
Size: 59.53 MB
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Industrial Enzymology from the Author: A.n. Shukla.

Carrier Bound Immobilized Enzymes

Author: Linqiu Cao
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527607080
Size: 50.64 MB
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Carrier Bound Immobilized Enzymes from the Author: Linqiu Cao. The first systematic overview of this key technique since the early 1990s, this authoritative reference is the only handbook available to include all recent developments. The author draws on his wide-ranging experience in both academia and industry to systematically cover all types of enzyme immobilization methods, such as adsorption-based and covalent immobilization, as well as enzyme entrapment and encapsulation. Throughout, a careful review of materials and techniques for the generation of functional immobilized enzymes benefits both developers and users of carrier-bound enzymes. A must for biotechnologists, biochemists and preparative chemists using enzymes in their daily work.

Biosensors For Direct Monitoring Of Environmental Pollutants In Field

Author: Dimitrios P. Nikolelis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401589739
Size: 48.90 MB
Format: PDF
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Biosensors For Direct Monitoring Of Environmental Pollutants In Field from the Author: Dimitrios P. Nikolelis. Biosensors offer clear and distinct advantages over standard analytical methods for the direct monitoring of environmental pollutants in the field, such as real-time detection with minimum sample preparation and handling. The present book highlights recent advantages that will be of great value to a range of scientists, researchers and students dealing with analytical and environmental chemistry and biosensor technology. It presents recent trends in analytical methodology for the determination of indoor and outdoor pollutants, advances in DNA, biological and recognition-based sensors, examples of biosensors for use in field and water analysis, biosensors based on non-aqueous systems, and recent advances in the miniaturisation and micromachining of biosensors.

Enzymatic Reactions In Organic Media

Author: Ari Koskinen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401106118
Size: 38.34 MB
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Enzymatic Reactions In Organic Media from the Author: Ari Koskinen. The outlook of organic synthesis has changed many times during its tractable history. The initial focus on the synthesis of substances typical of living matter, exemplified by the first examples of organic chemistry through the synthesis of urea from inorganic substances by Liebig, was accepted as the birth of organic chemistry, and thus also of organic synthesis. Although the early developments in organic synthesis closely followed the pursuit of molecules typical in nature, towards the end of the 19th century, societal pressures placed higher demands on chemical methods appropriate for the emerging age of industrialization. This led to vast amounts of information being generated through the discovery of synthetic reactions, spectroscopic techniques and reaction mechanisms. The basic organic functional group transformations were discovered and improved during the early part of this century. Reaction mechanisms were elucidated at a growing pace, and extremely powerful spectroscopic tools, such as infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry were introduced as everyday tools for a practising organic chemist. By the 1950s, many practitioners were ready to agree that almost every molecule could be syn thesized. Some difficult stereochemical problems were exceptions; for example Woodward concluded that erythromycin was a "hopelessly complex target". This frustration led to a hectic phase of development of new and increasingly more ingenious protecting group strategies and functional group transformations, and also saw the emergence of asymmetric synthesis.

Enzyme Design For Nonaqueous Media Optimization Of Enzymatic Catalysis For Organic Solvent Systems

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Enzyme Design For Nonaqueous Media Optimization Of Enzymatic Catalysis For Organic Solvent Systems from the Author: . From a biotechnological perspective there are many potential advantages of employing enzymes in organic as opposed to aqueous media. To that end, we have concluded an initial three-year research program in the area of enzymatic catalysis in organic solvents. Our studies have focused on the effect of protein hydration on subtilisins BPN' and Carlsberg in nonaqueous media. Investigations on protein engineered mutants, catalyst engineering studies, and structural studies, primarily employing EPR spectroscopy, have revealed fundamental information on the role of water, the the nature of enzyme structure, and the effects of solvents on the catalytic activity in organic solvents. This study has also resulted in several rational methods to dramatically improve enzyme activity under anhydrous conditions. Catalytic activities in organic solvents can now be expressed at levels similar to that in water--this is a major advance in the field of nonaqueous enzymology. (jg).

Enzymes In Nonaqueous Solvents

Author: Evgeny N. Vulfson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592591124
Size: 33.23 MB
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Enzymes In Nonaqueous Solvents from the Author: Evgeny N. Vulfson. In recent years, enzymatic catalysis in organic solvents-as opposed to aqueous solutions-has gained considerable attention as a powerful new approach to the preparation of natural products, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and food ingredients. In Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents: Methods and Protocols, leading chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists, and process engineers summarize for the first time a wide range of methods for executing enzymatic transformations under nonaqueous conditions. Each method includes detailed step-by-step instructions for its successful completion, a list of materials, and ancillary notes that explain the scientific basis of the procedure, as well as troubleshooting. Also provided are a generic description of key reactions, advice on biocatalyst preparation, discussion of reaction conditions, and instructions on bioreactor design. Comprehensive and state-of-the-art, Enzymes in Nonaqueous Solvents: Methods and Protocols offers today's synthetic chemists, biochemists, and process engineers all the essential information needed to carry out enzymatic reactions in nonaqueous media, as well as to successfully scale up to production quantities.


Author: Juan Carlos Lacal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783764360191
Size: 75.43 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Microinjection from the Author: Juan Carlos Lacal. Microinjection of macromolecules into living cells has proved to be a powerful technique for the functional analysis of gene products in living somatic cells. This approach is useful for the introduction of functional proteins, genes, inhi bitors of enzyme activities and antibodies into living cells (Ansorge, 1982). Types of cells into which these molecules can be introduced include primary and established cell lines, fIbroblasts and cells of various tissue types, including contractile cardiac cells. Some of the advantages of microinjection over other methods of introducing biological materials into cells (Celis, 1984; Graessmann et aI., 1980; Pepperkok et aI., 1988) are as follows: (1) Economy of the material; 13 15 microinjection delivers small volumes (10- _10- 1) directly into specifIc cells which means that the amount of material needed is much less than would be required for other approaches (e. g., scrape loading). (2) Damage to the cell ap pears to be much less than with other methods as evidence by stress re sponses, etc. (3) There is much less limitation on the nature of the material in jected; for example, nucleic acids, proteins, large and small molecules can all be introduced with little alteration of the technique. (4) Temporal experiments can be performed where the response at a given time to a particular reagent may be monitored."