Philosophical Perspectives On Newtonian Science

Author: Phillip Bricker
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262023016
Size: 63.28 MB
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Philosophical Perspectives On Newtonian Science from the Author: Phillip Bricker. These original essays explore the philosophical implications of Newton's work. They address a wide range of topics including Newton's influence on his contemporaries and successors such as Locke and Kant, and his views on the methodology of science, on absolute space and time, and on the Deity.Howard Stein compares Newton's refusal to lock natural philosophy into a preexisting system with the more rigid philosophical predilections of his near-contemporaries Christian Huygens and John Locke. Richard Arthur's commentary provides a useful gloss on Stein's essay. Lawrence Sklar puzzles over Newton's attempts to provide a unified treatment of the various "real quantities": absolute space, time, and motion. According to Phillip Bricker's responding essay, however, the distinctions Sklar draws do not go to the heart of the debate between realists and representationalists.J. E. McGuire and John Carriero debate Newtons views of the relationship between the Deity and the nature of time and space. Peter Achinstein looks at the tension between Newton's methodological views and his advocacy of a corpuscular theory of light; he suggests that Newton could justify the latter by a "weak" inductive inference, but R.I.G. Hughes believes that this inference involves an induction Newton would be unwilling to make. Immanuel Kant's critique of Newton's view of gravity is discussed and amplified by Michael Friedman In response, Robert DiSalle raises a number of problems for Friedman's analysis. Errol Harris and Philip Grier extend the discussion to the present day and look at the ethical implications of Newton's work.Phillip Bricker is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. R.I.G. Hughes is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of South Carolina. Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science is included in the Johns Hopkins Series on the History and Philosophy of Science.

What Makes Time Special

Author: Craig Callender
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192517848
Size: 65.34 MB
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What Makes Time Special from the Author: Craig Callender. As we navigate through life we instinctively model time as having a flowing present that divides a fixed past from open future. This model develops in childhood and is deeply saturated within our language, thought and behavior, affecting our conceptions of the universe, freedom and the self. Yet as central as it is to our lives, physics seems to have no room for this flowing present. What Makes Time Special? demonstrates this claim in detail and then turns to two novel positive tasks. First, by looking at the world "sideways" - in the spatial directions — it shows that physics is not "spatializing time" as is commonly alleged. Even relativity theory makes significant distinctions between the spacelike and timelike directions, often with surprising consequences. Second, if the flowing present is an illusion, it is a deep one worthy of explanation. The author develops a picture whereby the temporal flow arises as an interaction effect between an observer and the physics of the world. Using insights from philosophy, cognitive science, biology, psychology and physics, the theory claims that the flowing present model of time is the natural reaction to the perceptual and evolutionary challenges thrown at us. Modeling time as flowing makes sense even if it misrepresents it.

The Variables Of Moral Capacity

Author: David C. Thomasma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402025521
Size: 55.85 MB
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The Variables Of Moral Capacity from the Author: David C. Thomasma. Moral capacity is an important feature of what it means to be human. In this volume, the contributors have taken on the daunting task of trying to distinguish between legal and moral capacity. This distinction is difficult at times for clinicians, philosophers and legal scholars alike. Part of the challenge of defining moral capacity lies in the difficulty of adequately categorizing it. For this reason, the editors have chosen to divide the book into three parts. The first looks at the concepts involved in the discussion of moral capacity; the second considers the role of moral capacity in the lives of professionals; and the final part reflects on case studies of moral capacity or incapacity illustrating the challenge that moral capacity presents - its definition lying between two seemingly incommensurable models, those of the threshold and continuum. This volume takes a multidisciplinary approach to the subject, and ties the disciplines of medicine, philosophy and law into the health context. It will be of interest to medical health professionals as well as researchers working in the areas of philosophy and law.

Philosophy Of Language

Author: John Hawthorne
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 9781405196352
Size: 75.93 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Philosophy Of Language from the Author: John Hawthorne. Philosophy of Language: Philosophical Perspectives brings together state of the art essays to address the key issues at the heart of the philosophy of language and philosophical linguistics, written by some of the top minds in the field Explores cutting-edge research topics including semantic relativism, presupposition, vagueness, quantification, and the foundations of semantics Includes contributions from some of the top minds in the field, including Kit Fine, Herman Cappelen and Francois Recanati

Millikan And Her Critics

Author: Dan Ryder
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118328086
Size: 58.15 MB
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Millikan And Her Critics from the Author: Dan Ryder. Millikan and Her Critics offers a unique critical discussion of Ruth Millikan's highly regarded, influential, and systematic contributions to philosophy of mind and language, philosophy of biology, epistemology, and metaphysics. These newly written contributions present discussion from some of the most important philosophers in the field today and include replies from Millikan herself. Comprises 13 new essays that critically examine the highly regarded and influential work of Ruth Millikan Covers a wide range of Millikan's most important work, from philosophy of mind and language to philosophy of biology Features contributions by some of the most important and influential philosophers working today Includes original replies to critics by Millikan

1998 Publishers Trade List Annual

Author: R R Bowker Publishing
Publisher: Reed Reference Publishing
ISBN: 9780835241502
Size: 53.61 MB
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1998 Publishers Trade List Annual from the Author: R R Bowker Publishing.

Philosophy Of Mathematics

Author: Paul Benacerraf
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521296489
Size: 22.62 MB
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Philosophy Of Mathematics from the Author: Paul Benacerraf. The twentieth century has witnessed an unprecedented 'crisis in the foundations of mathematics', featuring a world-famous paradox (Russell's Paradox), a challenge to 'classical' mathematics from a world-famous mathematician (the 'mathematical intuitionism' of Brouwer), a new foundational school (Hilbert's Formalism), and the profound incompleteness results of Kurt Gödel. In the same period, the cross-fertilization of mathematics and philosophy resulted in a new sort of 'mathematical philosophy', associated most notably (but in different ways) with Bertrand Russell, W. V. Quine, and Gödel himself, and which remains at the focus of Anglo-Saxon philosophical discussion. The present collection brings together in a convenient form the seminal articles in the philosophy of mathematics by these and other major thinkers. It is a substantially revised version of the edition first published in 1964 and includes a revised bibliography. The volume will be welcomed as a major work of reference at this level in the field.

Thomas Aquinas On Human Nature

Author: Robert Pasnau
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521001892
Size: 34.57 MB
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Thomas Aquinas On Human Nature from the Author: Robert Pasnau. A major new study of Aquinas and his central project: the understanding of human nature.

Philosophy Of Medicine

Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080930913
Size: 56.88 MB
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Philosophy Of Medicine from the Author: . This volume covers a wide range of conceptual, epistemological and methodological issues in the philosophy of science raised by reflection upon medical science and practice. Several chapters examine such general meta-scientific concepts as discovery, reduction, theories and models, causal inference and scientific realism as they apply to medicine or medical science in particular. Some discuss important concepts specific to medicine (diagnosis, health, disease, brain death). A topic such as evidence, for instance, is examined at a variety of levels, from social mechanisms for guiding evidence-based reasoning such as evidence-based medicine, consensus conferences, and clinical trials, to the more abstract analysis of experimentation, inference and uncertainty. Some chapters reflect on particular domains of medicine, including psychiatry, public health, and nursing. The contributions span a broad range of detailed cases from the science and practice of medicine, as well as a broad range of intellectual approaches, from conceptual analysis to detailed examinations of particular scientific papers or historical episodes. Chapters view philosophy of medicine from quite different angles Considers substantive cases from both medical science and practice Chapters from a distinguished array of contributors