Philosophical Perspectives On Newtonian Science

Author: Phillip Bricker
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262023016
Size: 52.40 MB
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Philosophical Perspectives On Newtonian Science from the Author: Phillip Bricker. These original essays explore the philosophical implications of Newton's work. They address a wide range of topics including Newton's influence on his contemporaries and successors such as Locke and Kant, and his views on the methodology of science, on absolute space and time, and on the Deity.Howard Stein compares Newton's refusal to lock natural philosophy into a preexisting system with the more rigid philosophical predilections of his near-contemporaries Christian Huygens and John Locke. Richard Arthur's commentary provides a useful gloss on Stein's essay. Lawrence Sklar puzzles over Newton's attempts to provide a unified treatment of the various "real quantities": absolute space, time, and motion. According to Phillip Bricker's responding essay, however, the distinctions Sklar draws do not go to the heart of the debate between realists and representationalists.J. E. McGuire and John Carriero debate Newtons views of the relationship between the Deity and the nature of time and space. Peter Achinstein looks at the tension between Newton's methodological views and his advocacy of a corpuscular theory of light; he suggests that Newton could justify the latter by a "weak" inductive inference, but R.I.G. Hughes believes that this inference involves an induction Newton would be unwilling to make. Immanuel Kant's critique of Newton's view of gravity is discussed and amplified by Michael Friedman In response, Robert DiSalle raises a number of problems for Friedman's analysis. Errol Harris and Philip Grier extend the discussion to the present day and look at the ethical implications of Newton's work.Phillip Bricker is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. R.I.G. Hughes is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of South Carolina. Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science is included in the Johns Hopkins Series on the History and Philosophy of Science.

Between System And Poetics

Author: Thomas A.F. Kelly
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317174968
Size: 35.63 MB
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Between System And Poetics from the Author: Thomas A.F. Kelly. This is the first book-length examination of the work of an important contemporary thinker in the continental tradition, William Desmond. His thought is a new, post-modern way of articulating what he calls the ’between’. Rooted in Plato and Augustine, and advancing through a confrontation with Hegel and Nietzsche, Desmond rejects facile scepticism and wins through to a strikingly original and powerfully searching articulation of the human. The present volume contains essays on Desmond’s work both by emerging scholars and by well-established thinkers. It also contains a specially written essay on the practices of philosophy by Desmond himself.

What Makes Time Special

Author: Craig Callender
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192517848
Size: 40.27 MB
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What Makes Time Special from the Author: Craig Callender. As we navigate through life we instinctively model time as having a flowing present that divides a fixed past from open future. This model develops in childhood and is deeply saturated within our language, thought and behavior, affecting our conceptions of the universe, freedom and the self. Yet as central as it is to our lives, physics seems to have no room for this flowing present. What Makes Time Special? demonstrates this claim in detail and then turns to two novel positive tasks. First, by looking at the world "sideways" - in the spatial directions — it shows that physics is not "spatializing time" as is commonly alleged. Even relativity theory makes significant distinctions between the spacelike and timelike directions, often with surprising consequences. Second, if the flowing present is an illusion, it is a deep one worthy of explanation. The author develops a picture whereby the temporal flow arises as an interaction effect between an observer and the physics of the world. Using insights from philosophy, cognitive science, biology, psychology and physics, the theory claims that the flowing present model of time is the natural reaction to the perceptual and evolutionary challenges thrown at us. Modeling time as flowing makes sense even if it misrepresents it.

Philosophical Problems Of Behavioural Economics

Author: Stefan Heidl
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317267842
Size: 31.76 MB
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Philosophical Problems Of Behavioural Economics from the Author: Stefan Heidl. The goal of behavioural economics is to improve the explanatory and predictive power of economics. This can be achieved by using theoretical and methodological resources of psychology. Its fundamental idea is that the relationship between psychology and economics cannot be subsumed under standard philosophical accounts of intertheoretical relations. Philosophical Problems of Behavioural Economics argues that behavioural economics is best understood as an attempt to deidealize economic theory guided by psychological research. Behavioural economics deconstructs the model of decision-making by adding different elements. Based on this understanding behavioural economics has a number of tasks: first, it has to identify which economic theory needs to be challenged; second it aims to identify factors which need to be modelled within economic theories of choice and modify the theory accordingly; and finally, it has to create models that explain economic phenomena based on the new theory. This book analyses the different stages of this deconstruction process and shows how the scientific disciplines of economics and psychology are connected by it. This volume develops a new account of intertheoretical relations based on the idea of deidealization and thus contributes to debates within the philosophy of social science. It is suitable for those who are interested in or study economic theory and philosophy, economic psychology and philosophy of social science.

The Variables Of Moral Capacity

Author: David C. Thomasma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402025521
Size: 53.42 MB
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The Variables Of Moral Capacity from the Author: David C. Thomasma. Moral capacity is an important feature of what it means to be human. In this volume, the contributors have taken on the daunting task of trying to distinguish between legal and moral capacity. This distinction is difficult at times for clinicians, philosophers and legal scholars alike. Part of the challenge of defining moral capacity lies in the difficulty of adequately categorizing it. For this reason, the editors have chosen to divide the book into three parts. The first looks at the concepts involved in the discussion of moral capacity; the second considers the role of moral capacity in the lives of professionals; and the final part reflects on case studies of moral capacity or incapacity illustrating the challenge that moral capacity presents - its definition lying between two seemingly incommensurable models, those of the threshold and continuum. This volume takes a multidisciplinary approach to the subject, and ties the disciplines of medicine, philosophy and law into the health context. It will be of interest to medical health professionals as well as researchers working in the areas of philosophy and law.

Symbolic Forms As The Metaphysical Groundwork Of The Organon Of The Cultural Sciences

Author: Israel Bar-Yehuda Idalovichi
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443869775
Size: 28.94 MB
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Symbolic Forms As The Metaphysical Groundwork Of The Organon Of The Cultural Sciences from the Author: Israel Bar-Yehuda Idalovichi. This ambitious work reclassifies and restructures the history of ideas and the philosophy of culture through a wide-ranging and novel use of the idea of the organon. It does so by radically revising standard interpretations and theories of all branches of philosophy, and by providing an intellectual and philosophical foundation for the new organon of the cultural sciences. Furthermore, the seeded idea that saw its growth in the form of this book is the unshakable conviction that the only way by which a new apparatus of philosophy, an organon, could be created is by harking back to the vast sources of imagination, inspiration and mimēsis. This entire study is based on the notion that metaphysics, insofar as it is concerned with the world in its entirety and with human being’s existence and thought, should provide the foundation for the organon of cultural sciences, based on symbolic forms. Given that the colossal amount of information and knowledge of philosophy, arts, humanities, logic, mathematics, social sciences and natural sciences cannot be comprised, analyzed and comprehended per se, it is the organon’s objective to extract the main principles, ideas, postulates, theorems and theories of the cultural sciences, and, subsequently, to shape and restructure them as symbolic forms. Since all these principles are grounded on Becoming—which is not a stable or fixed entity such as Being, substance or thing—the symbolic forms preserve and change, elevate and further the organon of the cultural sciences, via a critical-dialectical process.

Philosophy Of Language

Author: John Hawthorne
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 9781405196352
Size: 76.86 MB
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Philosophy Of Language from the Author: John Hawthorne. Philosophy of Language: Philosophical Perspectives brings together state of the art essays to address the key issues at the heart of the philosophy of language and philosophical linguistics, written by some of the top minds in the field Explores cutting-edge research topics including semantic relativism, presupposition, vagueness, quantification, and the foundations of semantics Includes contributions from some of the top minds in the field, including Kit Fine, Herman Cappelen and Francois Recanati

Millikan And Her Critics

Author: Dan Ryder
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118328086
Size: 39.66 MB
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Millikan And Her Critics from the Author: Dan Ryder. Millikan and Her Critics offers a unique critical discussion of Ruth Millikan's highly regarded, influential, and systematic contributions to philosophy of mind and language, philosophy of biology, epistemology, and metaphysics. These newly written contributions present discussion from some of the most important philosophers in the field today and include replies from Millikan herself. Comprises 13 new essays that critically examine the highly regarded and influential work of Ruth Millikan Covers a wide range of Millikan's most important work, from philosophy of mind and language to philosophy of biology Features contributions by some of the most important and influential philosophers working today Includes original replies to critics by Millikan

Evidentialism And Epistemic Justification

Author: Kevin McCain
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134698348
Size: 33.94 MB
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Evidentialism And Epistemic Justification from the Author: Kevin McCain. Evidentialism is a popular theory of epistemic justification, yet, as early proponents of the theory Earl Conee and Richard Feldman admit, there are many elements that must be developed before Evidentialism can provide a full account of epistemic justification, or well-founded belief. It is the aim of this book to provide the details that are lacking; here McCain moves past Evidentialism as a mere schema by putting forward and defending a full-fledged theory of epistemic justification. In this book McCain offers novel approaches to several elements of well-founded belief. Key among these are an original account of what it takes to have information as evidence, an account of epistemic support in terms of explanation, and a causal account of the basing relation (the relation that one's belief must bear to her evidence in order to be justified) that is far superior to previous accounts. The result is a fully developed Evidentialist account of well-founded belief.