Mechanotransduction In Mitotic Spindle Positioning

Author: Jenny Fink
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Mechanotransduction In Mitotic Spindle Positioning from the Author: Jenny Fink. In mitosis, positioning of the microtubule spindle represents a key process that is conserved from yeast to animal cells. It is essential for cell fate, development and tissue organization and perturbations of this process can have as dramatic effects as uncontrolled cell dissemination and death of the whole organism. In animal cells, external stimuli are thought to polarize the actin cortex, and this polarization is subsequently transduced to the microtubule spindle leading to its positioning. During my thesis, I studied the influence of extracellular pulling forces on mitotic spindle orientation in cultured cells. We demonstrated that these extracellular forces that were transmitted to the mitotic cell body via retraction fibres could direct spindle positioning. We thus identified a novel function for mechanotransduction, i.e. the conversion of mechanical forces into biochemical signals that finally induce a cellular response, in the context of mitotic spindle positioning. These findings additionally demonstrate that biochemical cues -predominantly investigated by previous studies - are not the only important signals regulating spindle positioning. We could furthermore show that the actin cortex is mechanically polarized during mitosis: one cortex quadrant was often up to twice stiffer than the remaining three quadrants. The mitotic spindle appeared to be aligned with this stiffness gradient, one pole facing the stiffest quadrant. Simulations of spindle dynamics, performed in the group of François Nedelec, could predict this observed behaviour when using our measured parameters for cortical rigidity and microtubule dynamics.


Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123983274
Size: 50.64 MB
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Mechanotransduction from the Author: . Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science provides a forum for discussion of new discoveries, approaches, and ideas in molecular biology. It contains contributions from leaders in their fields and abundant references. Volume 126 features in-depth reviews that focus on the tools required to investigate mechanotransduction. Additional chapters focus on how we can use these tools to answer fundamental questions about the interaction of physical forces with cell biology, morphogenesis, and function of mature structures. Chapters in the volume are authored by a unique combination of cell biologists and engineers, providing a range of perspectives on mechanotransduction. Provides a unique combination of perspectives from biologists and engineers Engaging to people of many training backgrounds

Mechanosensitivity And Mechanotransduction

Author: Irina Kiseleva
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048198818
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Mechanosensitivity And Mechanotransduction from the Author: Irina Kiseleva. This book presents the latest findings in the field of research of mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction in different cells and tissues. Mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction of the heart and vascular cells, in the lung, in bone and joint tissues, in sensor systems and in blood cells are described in detail. This Volume focuses on molecular mechanisms of mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction via cytoskeleton. Integrin-mediated mechanotransduction, the role of actin cytoskeleton and the role of other cytoskeletal elements are discussed. It contains a detailed description of several stretch-induced signaling cascades with multiple levels of crosstalk between different pathways. It contains a description of the role of nitric oxide in regulation of cardiac activity and in regulation of mechanically gated channels in the heart. In the heart mechanical signals are propagated into the intracellular space primarily via integrin-linked complexes, and are subsequently transmitted from cell to cell via paracrine signaling. Biochemical signals derived from mechanical stimuli activate both acute phosphorylation of signaling cascades, such as in the PI3K, FAK, and ILK pathways, and long-term morphological modii cations via intracellular cytoskeletal reorganization and extracellular matrix remodelling. Cellular and molecular effects of mechanical stretch on vascular cells are also discussed. This Volume highlights the role of mechanotransduction in the lung, in bone and joint tissues. For the first time mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction in blood cells are discussed. It contains new insights into mechanosensitive K+ channels functioning in mouse B lymphocytes. This book is a unique collection of reviews outlining current knowledge and future developments in this rapidly growing field. Currently, investigations of the molecular mechanisms of mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction are focused on several issues. The majority of studies investigate intracellular signaling pathways. Knowledge of the mechanisms which underlie these processes is necessary for understanding of the normal functioning of different organs and tissues and allows to predict changes, which arise due to alterations of their environment. Possibly such knowledge will allow the development of new methods of artificial intervention and therapies. This book brings up the problem closer to the experts in related medical and biological sciences as well as practicing doctors besides just presenting the latest achievements in the field.

Cell Press Reviews Core Concepts In Cell Biology

Author: Cell Press
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0127999183
Size: 14.72 MB
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Cell Press Reviews Core Concepts In Cell Biology from the Author: Cell Press. Written by leading cell biologists and curated by Cell Press editors, reviews in the Cell Press Reviews: Core Concepts in Cell Biology publication informs, inspires, and connects cell biologists at all stages in their careers with timely, comprehensive insight into the most recent exciting developments across cell biology and hot topics within core areas of the field including: Signaling mechanisms and membrane biology Cytoskeletal self-organization and cell polarity Organelle dynamics and biogenesis Morphogenesis and cell motility Chromatin and genome organization in nuclear function Contributions come from leading voices in cell biology, who are defining the future of their field, including: - Tom Misteli, National Cancer Institute - Galit Lahav, Harvard Medical School - Scott D. Emr, Cornell University - David G. Drubin, University of California, Berkeley - Tom Rapoport, Harvard Medical School - Anthony A. Hyman, Max Planck Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Dresden This publication is part of the Cell Press Reviews series, which features reviews published in Cell Press primary research and Trends reviews journals. Provides timely, comprehensive coverage across a broad range of cell biological topics Offers foundational knowledge and expert insights to students and others new to the field Features reviews from leaders in cell biology research and discussion of future directions for the field Includes articles originally published in Cell, Current Biology, Developmental Cell, and Trends in Cell Biology

Methods For Analysis Of Golgi Complex Function

Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0124171834
Size: 17.65 MB
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Methods For Analysis Of Golgi Complex Function from the Author: . This new volume of Methods in Cell Biology looks at methods for analyzing of golgi complex function. Chapters cover such topics as in vitro reconstitution systems, fluorescence-based analysis of trafficking in mammalian cells and high content screening. With cutting-edge material, this comprehensive collection is intended to guide researchers for years to come. Covers sections on model systems and functional studies, imaging-based approaches and emerging studies Chapters are written by experts in the field Cutting-edge material

Tissue Remodeling And Epithelial Morphogenesis

Author: Thomas Lecuit
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080956831
Size: 14.34 MB
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Tissue Remodeling And Epithelial Morphogenesis from the Author: Thomas Lecuit. For more than 30 years, "Current Topics in Developmental Biology" has provided a forum for dissemination and discussion of new ideas and thought in developmental biology. Bringing together a series of articles on the structural, functional, and developmental characteristics of epithelials, this thematic volume represents a timely and valuable contribution to an exciting and multidisciplinary field of study. Because defects in epithelial function and growth control play a major role in human diseaseOCocancerous tumors, spina bifida, cardiac malformations, for exampleOCothis volume will be of particular interest to researchers working in cancer drug design and development and those working in therapeutic areas to treat developmental abnormalities. Coverage of current research findings and thought on cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions gives researchers a better understanding of the processes of remodeling and morphogenesis, which are critical to the development of drugs aimed at disrupting the early formation and proliferation of cancerous tumors. Inclusion of chapters that discuss the most contemporary thought on cell polarity and tissue morphogenesis, providing researchers with a better understanding of the control of cellular organization and polarity (particularly important to researchers who are developing treatments for developmental abnormalities and those working in cancer drug development). Use of a variety of animal models, allowingaresearchers to compare and contrast the molecular mechanisms that underlie cell-cell and cell-extracelluar matrix interactions in a variety of research models."

Essays On Developmental Biology

Author: Paul M Wassarman
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128016167
Size: 24.47 MB
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Essays On Developmental Biology from the Author: Paul M Wassarman. In 2016 Current Topics in Developmental Biology (CTDB) will celebrate its 50th or “golden anniversary. To commemorate the founding of CTDB by Aron Moscona (1921-2009) and Alberto Monroy (1913-1986) in 1966, a two-volume set of CTDB (volumes 116 and 117), entitled Essays on Development, will be published by Academic Press/Elsevier in early 2016. The volumes are edited by Paul M. Wassarman, series editor of CTDB, and include contributions from dozens of outstanding developmental biologists from around the world. Overall, the essays provide critical reviews and discussion of developmental processes for a variety of model organisms. Many essays relate the history of a particular area of research, others personal experiences in research, and some are quite philosophical. Essays on Development provides a window onto the rich landscape of contemporary research in developmental biology and should be useful to both students and investigators for years to come. Covers the area of developmental processes for a variety of model organisms International board of authors Part of two 50th Anniversary volumes proving a comprehensive set of reviews edited by Serial Editor Paul M. Wassarman


Author: Simon C. F. Rawlinson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118966155
Size: 40.47 MB
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Mechanobiology from the Author: Simon C. F. Rawlinson. An emerging field at the interface of biology and engineering, mechanobiology explores the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to mechanical signals—and holds great promise in one day unravelling the mysteries of cellular and extracellular matrix mechanics to cure a broad range of diseases. Mechanobiology: Exploitation for Medical Benefit presents a comprehensive overview of principles of mechanobiology, highlighting the extent to which biological tissues are exposed to the mechanical environment, demonstrating the importance of the mechanical environment in living systems, and critically reviewing the latest experimental procedures in this emerging field. Featuring contributions from several top experts in the field, chapters begin with an introduction to fundamental mechanobiological principles; and then proceed to explore the relationship of this extensive force in nature to tissues of musculoskeletal systems, heart and lung vasculature, the kidney glomerulus, and cutaneous tissues. Examples of some current experimental models are presented conveying relevant aspects of mechanobiology, highlighting emerging trends and promising avenues of research in the development of innovative therapies. Timely and important, Mechanobiology: Exploitation for Medical Benefit offers illuminating insights into an emerging field that has the potential to revolutionise our comprehension of appropriate cell biology and the future of biomedical research.

International Review Of Cell And Molecular Biology

Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128124725
Size: 36.54 MB
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International Review Of Cell And Molecular Biology from the Author: . International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology, Volume 332 reviews current advances in cell and molecular biology. The IRCMB series has a worldwide readership, maintaining a high standard by publishing invited articles on important and timely topics that are authored by prominent cell and molecular biologists. The articles published in IRCMB have a high impact and average cited half-life of nine years. This great resource ranks high amongst scientific journals dealing with cell biology. Publishes only invited review articles on selected topics Authored by established and active cell and molecular biologists drawn from international sources Offers a wide range of perspectives on specific subjects