Introduction To Crystal Growth And Characterization

Author: Klaus-Werner Benz
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527684344
Size: 44.58 MB
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Introduction To Crystal Growth And Characterization from the Author: Klaus-Werner Benz. This new textbook provides for the first time a comprehensive treatment of the basics of contemporary crystallography and crystal growth in a single volume. The reader will be familiarized with the concepts for the description of morphological and structural symmetry of crystals. The architecture of crystal structures of selected inorganic and molecular crystals is illustrated. The main crystallographic databases as data sources of crystal structures are described. Nucleation processes, their kinetics and main growth mechanism will be introduced in fundamentals of crystal growth. Some phase diagrams in the solid and liquid phases in correlation with the segregation of dopants are treated on a macro- and microscale. Fluid dynamic aspects with different types of convection in melts and solutions are discussed. Various growth techniques for semiconducting materials in connection with the use of external field (magnetic fields and microgravity) are described. Crystal characterization as the overall assessment of the grown crystal is treated in detail with respect to - crystal defects - crystal quality - field of application Introduction to Crystal Growth and Characterization is an ideal textbook written in a form readily accessible to undergraduate and graduate students of crystallography, physics, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It is also a valuable resource for all scientists concerned with crystal growth and materials engineering.

Introduction To Crystal Growth

Author: H.L. Bhat
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439883335
Size: 32.24 MB
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Introduction To Crystal Growth from the Author: H.L. Bhat. Introduction to Crystal Growth: Principles and Practice teaches readers about crystals and their origins. It offers a historical perspective of the subject and includes background information whenever possible. The first section of this introductory book takes readers through the historical development and motivation of the field of crystal growth. With more than 40 years of experience in the field, the author covers nucleation, two-dimensional layer growth mechanism, defects in crystals, and screw dislocation theory of crystal growth. He also explains some aspects of the important subject of phase diagrams. The second section focuses on the experimental techniques of crystal growth. For practicing crystal growers, the book provides nuts-and-bolts techniques and tips. It discusses the major techniques categorized by solid–solid, liquid–solid, and vapor–solid equilibria and describes characterization techniques essential to measuring the quality of grown crystals.

Synthesis Crystal Growth And Characterization

Author: K. Lal
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 008098469X
Size: 14.75 MB
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Synthesis Crystal Growth And Characterization from the Author: K. Lal. Synthesis, Crystal Growth and Characterization presents the proceedings of the International School on Synthesis, Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, held on October 12-23, 1981, at the National Physical Laboratory in New Delhi, India. The book consists of lectures by distinguished scientists from around the world who tackle different aspects of synthesis, crystal growth, characterization of materials, energy conversion, and energy storage. Organized into four parts encompassing 26 chapters, the book begins with an overview of the synthesis of materials at high temperatures and pressures before turning to a discussion of how macrocrystalline and amorphous silicon is prepared. It then looks at fundamental principles underlying the process of crystal growth, both from the vapor phase and from melt, and methodically introduces the reader to the different techniques used to characterize materials, including neutron scattering and electron transport. The next chapters focus on point defects and aggregates that influence the critical electronic properties of semiconducting materials, X-ray diffraction studies of strains and stresses in thin films used in solid-state devices, and electron spectroscopic studies of solid surfaces. The book also considers the role of physics in microelectronics and vice versa, fast ion transport in solids, and the concept of Syadvada in relation to modern physics. This volume is a valuable resource for participants of the International School on Synthesis, Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, as well as active researchers working in areas related to the field.

Crystal Growth Technology

Author: Kullaiah Byrappa
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0815516800
Size: 25.68 MB
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Crystal Growth Technology from the Author: Kullaiah Byrappa. Crystals are the unacknowledged pillars of modern technology. The modern technological developments depend greatly on the availability of suitable single crystals, whether it is for lasers, semiconductors, magnetic devices, optical devices, superconductors, telecommunication, etc. In spite of great technological advancements in the recent years, we are still in the early stage with respect to the growth of several important crystals such as diamond, silicon carbide, PZT, gallium nitride, and so on. Unless the science of growing these crystals is understood precisely, it is impossible to grow them as large single crystals to be applied in modern industry. This book deals with almost all the modern crystal growth techniques that have been adopted, including appropriate case studies. Since there has been no other book published to cover the subject after the Handbook of Crystal Growth, Eds. DTJ Hurle, published during 1993-1995, this book will fill the existing gap for its readers. The book begins with ""Growth Histories of Mineral Crystals"" by the most senior expert in this field, Professor Ichiro Sunagawa. The next chapter reviews recent developments in the theory of crystal growth, which is equally important before moving on to actual techniques. After the first two fundamental chapters, the book covers other topics like the recent progress in quartz growth, diamond growth, silicon carbide single crystals, PZT crystals, nonlinear optical crystals, solid state laser crystals, gemstones, high melting oxides like lithium niobates, hydroxyapatite, GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy, superconducting crystals, morphology control, and more. For the first time, the crystal growth modeling has been discussed in detail with reference to PZT and SiC crystals.

Heteroepitaxy Of Semiconductors

Author: John E. Ayers
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482254360
Size: 59.61 MB
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Heteroepitaxy Of Semiconductors from the Author: John E. Ayers. In the past ten years, heteroepitaxy has continued to increase in importance with the explosive growth of the electronics industry and the development of a myriad of heteroepitaxial devices for solid state lighting, green energy, displays, communications, and digital computing. Our ever-growing understanding of the basic physics and chemistry underlying heteroepitaxy, especially lattice relaxation and dislocation dynamic, has enabled an ever-increasing emphasis on metamorphic devices. To reflect this focus, two all-new chapters have been included in this new edition. One chapter addresses metamorphic buffer layers, and the other covers metamorphic devices. The remaining seven chapters have been revised extensively with new material on crystal symmetry and relationships, III-nitride materials, lattice relaxation physics and models, in-situ characterization, and reciprocal space maps.

Crystal Growth Technology

Author: Hans J. Scheel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470871679
Size: 43.56 MB
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Crystal Growth Technology from the Author: Hans J. Scheel. This volume deals with the technologies of crystal fabrication, of crystal machining, and of epilayer production and is the first book on industrial and scientific aspects of crystal and layer production. The major industrial crystals are treated: Si, GaAs, GaP, InP, CdTe, sapphire, oxide and halide scintillator crystals, crystals for optical, piezoelectric and microwave applications and more. Contains 29 contributions from leading crystal technologists covering the following topics: * General aspects of crystal growth technology * Silicon * Compound semiconductors * Oxides and halides * Crystal machining * Epitaxy and layer deposition Scientific and technological problems of production and machining of industrial crystals are discussed by top experts, most of them from the major growth industries and crystal growth centers. In addition, it will be useful for the users of crystals, for teachers and graduate students in materials sciences, in electronic and other functional materials, chemical and metallurgical engineering, micro-and optoelectronics including nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and precision-machining, microtechnology, and in solid-state sciences.

Nonlinear Optical Properties Of Organic Molecules And Crystals

Author: D.S. Chemla
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323148158
Size: 23.77 MB
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Nonlinear Optical Properties Of Organic Molecules And Crystals from the Author: D.S. Chemla. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, Volume 1 discusses the nonlinear optical effects in organic molecules and crystals, providing a classical distinction between quadratic and cubic processes. This book begins with a general overview of the basic properties of organic matter, followed by a review on the benefits derived from quantum-chemistry-based models and growth and characterization of high quality, bulk organic crystals and waveguided structures. A case study focusing on a specific material, namely urea, which exemplifies a situation in which transparency in the UV region has been purposely traded for nonlinear efficiency is also deliberated. This text concludes with a description of a type of trade-off between the unpredictable orientation of molecules in crystalline media, polarity of liquid-crystalline structures, and dominant electronic contribution to the electro-optic effect. This publication is beneficial to solid-state physicists and chemists concerned with nonlinear optical properties of organic molecules and crystals.

Thallium Based High Tempature Superconductors

Author: Allen Hermann
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824791148
Size: 50.50 MB
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Thallium Based High Tempature Superconductors from the Author: Allen Hermann. Provides information on all chemical, physical and material aspects of this class of cuprates, and covers their applications. This work provides data on the chemistry, solid-state chemistry, handling and safety requirements of thallium.