Introduction To Crystal Growth And Characterization

Author: Klaus-Werner Benz
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527684344
Size: 21.79 MB
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Introduction To Crystal Growth And Characterization from the Author: Klaus-Werner Benz. This new textbook provides for the first time a comprehensive treatment of the basics of contemporary crystallography and crystal growth in a single volume. The reader will be familiarized with the concepts for the description of morphological and structural symmetry of crystals. The architecture of crystal structures of selected inorganic and molecular crystals is illustrated. The main crystallographic databases as data sources of crystal structures are described. Nucleation processes, their kinetics and main growth mechanism will be introduced in fundamentals of crystal growth. Some phase diagrams in the solid and liquid phases in correlation with the segregation of dopants are treated on a macro- and microscale. Fluid dynamic aspects with different types of convection in melts and solutions are discussed. Various growth techniques for semiconducting materials in connection with the use of external field (magnetic fields and microgravity) are described. Crystal characterization as the overall assessment of the grown crystal is treated in detail with respect to - crystal defects - crystal quality - field of application Introduction to Crystal Growth and Characterization is an ideal textbook written in a form readily accessible to undergraduate and graduate students of crystallography, physics, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It is also a valuable resource for all scientists concerned with crystal growth and materials engineering.

Introduction To Crystal Growth

Author: H.L. Bhat
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439883300
Size: 56.91 MB
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Introduction To Crystal Growth from the Author: H.L. Bhat. Introduction to Crystal Growth: Principles and Practice teaches readers about crystals and their origins. It offers a historical perspective of the subject and includes background information whenever possible. The first section of this introductory book takes readers through the historical development and motivation of the field of crystal growth. With more than 40 years of experience in the field, the author covers nucleation, two-dimensional layer growth mechanism, defects in crystals, and screw dislocation theory of crystal growth. He also explains some aspects of the important subject of phase diagrams. The second section focuses on the experimental techniques of crystal growth. For practicing crystal growers, the book provides nuts-and-bolts techniques and tips. It discusses the major techniques categorized by solid–solid, liquid–solid, and vapor–solid equilibria and describes characterization techniques essential to measuring the quality of grown crystals.

Heteroepitaxy Of Semiconductors

Author: John E. Ayers
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482254360
Size: 21.58 MB
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Heteroepitaxy Of Semiconductors from the Author: John E. Ayers. In the past ten years, heteroepitaxy has continued to increase in importance with the explosive growth of the electronics industry and the development of a myriad of heteroepitaxial devices for solid state lighting, green energy, displays, communications, and digital computing. Our ever-growing understanding of the basic physics and chemistry underlying heteroepitaxy, especially lattice relaxation and dislocation dynamic, has enabled an ever-increasing emphasis on metamorphic devices. To reflect this focus, two all-new chapters have been included in this new edition. One chapter addresses metamorphic buffer layers, and the other covers metamorphic devices. The remaining seven chapters have been revised extensively with new material on crystal symmetry and relationships, III-nitride materials, lattice relaxation physics and models, in-situ characterization, and reciprocal space maps.

Shaped Crystals

Author: Tsuguo Fukuda
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 354071295X
Size: 25.29 MB
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Shaped Crystals from the Author: Tsuguo Fukuda. This volume offers an overview of the growth of shaped crystals (oxides, fluorides, etc.) by the micro-pulling-down technique. Both melt and solution (flux) growth are considered. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed in detail and compared with related crystal-growth processes. The authors attempt to give a practical introduction to this technique, thereby also explaining how its application can help to solve problems commonly encountered in other melt-growth methods.

Crystal Growth And Characterization Of Advanced Materials

Author: A N Christensen
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814611123
Size: 25.38 MB
Format: PDF
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Crystal Growth And Characterization Of Advanced Materials from the Author: A N Christensen. Contents:Fundamental Aspects of Crystal Growth from the Melt (C Paorici & L Zanotti)Phase Diagrams in Crystal Growth (A N Christensen)Growth Procedures and Perfection of Semiconductor Materials (A Lindegaard-Andersen)Atomistic Aspects of Crystal Growth and Epitaxy (I Markov)Fundamentals of Liquid Phase Epitaxial Growth (P Kordos)Determination of Few Selected Basic Parameters of the Investigation of AIII-BV Semiconductors Using X-Ray Methods (H Bruhl)Multijunction Solar Cells (I Chambouleyron)Application of the Mossbauer Spectroscopy to the Study of Magnetic Materials (G Albanese)Metallic Magnetism in Modern Materials (D Givord)and others Readership: Materials scientists.

Growth And Characterization Of Bulk Superconductor Material

Author: Dapeng Chen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331931548X
Size: 19.66 MB
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Growth And Characterization Of Bulk Superconductor Material from the Author: Dapeng Chen. This book focuses on recently developed crystal growth techniques to grow large and high quality superconducting single crystals. The techniques applied are traveling solvent floating zone (TSFZ) with infrared image furnace, Bridgeman, solution/flux and top seeded solution growth (TSSG) methods. The materials range from cuprates, cobaltates to pnictides including La2CuO4-based (LCO), YBa2Cu3O7-d (YBCO), Bi2Sr2Can−1CunO2n+4+ή (n=1,2,3) (BSCCO) to NaxCoO2. The modified Bridgman “cold finger” method is devoted to the pnictide system with the best quality (transition width DTc~0.5 K) with highest Tc~38.5 K of Ba0.68K0.32Fe2A2. The book presents various iron-based superconductors with different structures, such as 1111, 122, 111, 11 and 42622,10-3-8. Detailed single crystal growth methods (fluxes, Bridgman, floating zone), the associated procedures and their impact to crystal size and quality are presented. The book also describes the influence of doping on the structure and the electric, magnetic, and superconducting properties of these compounds in a comparative study of different growth methods. It describes particularly under-, optimal and over-doped with oxygen cuprates (LCO, YBCO and BSCCO) and hole/electron/isovalently doped parent compounds AFe2As2 (A = Ba, Sr, Ca) (122), chalcogenides AxFe2-ySe2(A = K, Rb, Cs) (122), and Fe1-dTe1-xSex (11). A review of the current growth technologies and future growth efforts handling volatile and poisonous components are also presented.

Fundamentals Of Silicon Carbide Technology

Author: Tsunenobu Kimoto
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118313526
Size: 65.92 MB
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Fundamentals Of Silicon Carbide Technology from the Author: Tsunenobu Kimoto. 'Fundamentals of Silicon Carbide Technology' covers basic properties of SiC materials, processing technology, theory and analysis of practical devices, and an overview of the most important systems applications.

Hydrogen In Semiconductors

Author: Jacques I. Pankove
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080864310
Size: 24.55 MB
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Hydrogen In Semiconductors from the Author: Jacques I. Pankove. Hydrogen plays an important role in silicon technology, having a profound effect on a wide range of properties. Thus, the study of hydrogen in semiconductors has received much attention from an interdisciplinary assortment of researchers. This sixteen-chapter volume provides a comprehensive review of the field, including a discussion of hydrogenation methods, the use of hydrogen to passivate defects, the use of hydrogen to neutralize deep levels, shallow acceptors and shallow donors in silicon, vibrational spectroscopy, and hydrogen-induced defects in silicon. In addition to this detailed coverage of hydrogen in silicon, chapters are provided that discuss hydrogen-related phenomena in germanium and the neutralization of defects and dopants in III*b1V semiconductors. Provides the most in-depth coverage of hydrogen in silicon available in a single source**Includes an extensive chapter on the neutralization of defects in III*b1V semiconductors**Combines both experimental and theoretical studies to form a comprehensive reference

Characterization Of Crystal Growth Defects By X Ray Methods

Author: B.K. Tanner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475711263
Size: 77.11 MB
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Characterization Of Crystal Growth Defects By X Ray Methods from the Author: B.K. Tanner. This book contains the proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute entitled "Characterization of Crystal Growth Defects by X-ray Methods' held in the University of Durham, England from 29th August to 10th September 1979. The current interest in electronic materials, in particular silicon, gallium aluminium arsenide, and quartz, and the recent availability of synchrotron radiation for X-ray diffraction studies made this Advanced Study Institute particularly timely. Two main themes ran through the course: 1. A survey of the various types of defect occurring in crystal growth, the mechanism of their different methods of generation and their influence on the properties of relativelY perfect crystals. 2. A detailed and advanced course on the observation and characterization of such defects by X-ray methods. The main emphasis was on X-ray topographic techniques but a substantial amount of time was spent on goniometric techniques such as double crystal diffractometry and gamma ray diffraction. The presentation of material in this book reflects these twin themes. Section A is concerned with defects, Section C with techniques and in linking them. Section B provides a concise account of the basic theory necessary for the interpretation of X-ray topographs and diffractometric data. Although the sequence follows roughly the order of presentation at the Advanced Study Institute certain major changes have been made in order to improve the pedagogy. In particular, the first two chapters provide a vital, and seldom articulated, case for the need for characterization for crystals used in device technologies.

Synthesis Crystal Growth And Characterization

Author: K. Lal
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 008098469X
Size: 26.42 MB
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Synthesis Crystal Growth And Characterization from the Author: K. Lal. Synthesis, Crystal Growth and Characterization presents the proceedings of the International School on Synthesis, Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, held on October 12-23, 1981, at the National Physical Laboratory in New Delhi, India. The book consists of lectures by distinguished scientists from around the world who tackle different aspects of synthesis, crystal growth, characterization of materials, energy conversion, and energy storage. Organized into four parts encompassing 26 chapters, the book begins with an overview of the synthesis of materials at high temperatures and pressures before turning to a discussion of how macrocrystalline and amorphous silicon is prepared. It then looks at fundamental principles underlying the process of crystal growth, both from the vapor phase and from melt, and methodically introduces the reader to the different techniques used to characterize materials, including neutron scattering and electron transport. The next chapters focus on point defects and aggregates that influence the critical electronic properties of semiconducting materials, X-ray diffraction studies of strains and stresses in thin films used in solid-state devices, and electron spectroscopic studies of solid surfaces. The book also considers the role of physics in microelectronics and vice versa, fast ion transport in solids, and the concept of Syadvada in relation to modern physics. This volume is a valuable resource for participants of the International School on Synthesis, Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, as well as active researchers working in areas related to the field.