Evolution Of The Brain Creation Of The Self

Author: John C. Eccles
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134968353
Size: 80.78 MB
Format: PDF
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Evolution Of The Brain Creation Of The Self from the Author: John C. Eccles. Sir John Eccles, a distinguished scientist and Nobel Prize winner who has devoted his scientific life to the study of the mammalian brain, tells the story of how we came to be, not only as animals at the end of the hominid evolutionary line, but also as human persons possessed of reflective consciousness.

The Ancient Origins Of Consciousness

Author: Todd E. Feinberg
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262034336
Size: 47.85 MB
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The Ancient Origins Of Consciousness from the Author: Todd E. Feinberg. How consciousness appeared much earlier in evolutionary history than is commonly assumed, and why all vertebrates and perhaps even some invertebrates are conscious.

A History Of The Mind

Author: Nicholas Humphrey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387987194
Size: 23.14 MB
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A History Of The Mind from the Author: Nicholas Humphrey. In this lively and engaging book, the distinguished psychologist Nicholas Humphrey takes the reader on an exhilarating journey spanning millions of years -- in the search for clues to how human consciousness evolved. In A History of the Mind Humphrey proposes a radical new solution to the so-called "hard problem" that has baffled generations of philosophers and scientists -- how does the water of the brain yield the wine of conscious experience? Raw sensations are central to all conscious states, he argues, and he shows ingeniously how our physical and emotional self-awareness may have developed out of our primitive ancestors' bodily responses of pain and pleasure.

Self Comes To Mind

Author: Antonio Damasio
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 1446493857
Size: 32.31 MB
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Self Comes To Mind from the Author: Antonio Damasio. Winner of the CORINE International Book Award 2011 From one of the most important neuroscientists at work today, a path-breaking investigation of a question that has confounded neurologists, philosophers, cognitive scientists and psychologists for centuries: how is consciousness created? Antonio Damasio has spent the past thirty years studying and writing about how the brain operates, and his work has garnered acclaim for its singular melding of the scientific and the humanistic. In Self Comes to Mind, he goes against the long-standing idea that consciousness is somehow separate from the body, presenting compelling new scientific evidence that consciousness - what we think of as a mind with a self - is in fact a biological process created by a living organism. The result is a groundbreaking investigative journey into the neurobiological foundations of mind and self.

Comparative Psychology

Author: Mauricio R. Papini
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 113687318X
Size: 39.17 MB
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Comparative Psychology from the Author: Mauricio R. Papini. Comparative Psychology (second edition) is a core textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate courses in Comparative Psychology, Animal Behavior, and Evolutionary Psychology. Its main goal is to introduce the student to evolutionary and developmental approaches to the study of animal behavior. The structure of the book reflects the principal areas of importance to psychology students studying animal behavior: evolution, physiological issues, learning and cognition, development, and social evolution. Throughout, this text includes many examples drawn from the study of human behavior, highlighting general and basic principles that apply broadly to the animal kingdom.

Denial

Author: Ajit Varki
Publisher: Hachette UK
ISBN: 1455511927
Size: 63.84 MB
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Denial from the Author: Ajit Varki. The history of science abounds with momentous theories that disrupted conventional wisdom and yet were eventually proven true. Ajit Varki and Danny Brower's "Mind over Reality" theory is poised to be one such idea-a concept that runs counter to commonly-held notions about human evolution but that may hold the key to understanding why humans evolved as we did, leaving all other related species far behind. At a chance meeting in 2005, Brower, a geneticist, posed an unusual idea to Varki that he believed could explain the origins of human uniqueness among the world's species: Why is there no humanlike elephant or humanlike dolphin, despite millions of years of evolutionary opportunity? Why is it that humans alone can understand the minds of others? Haunted by their encounter, Varki tried years later to contact Brower only to discover that he had died unexpectedly. Inspired by an incomplete manuscript Brower left behind, DENIAL presents a radical new theory on the origins of our species. It was not, the authors argue, a biological leap that set humanity apart from other species, but a psychological one: namely, the uniquely human ability to deny reality in the face of inarguable evidence-including the willful ignorance of our own inevitable deaths. The awareness of our own mortality could have caused anxieties that resulted in our avoiding the risks of competing to procreate-an evolutionary dead-end. Humans therefore needed to evolve a mechanism for overcoming this hurdle: the denial of reality. As a consequence of this evolutionary quirk we now deny any aspects of reality that are not to our liking-we smoke cigarettes, eat unhealthy foods, and avoid exercise, knowing these habits are a prescription for an early death. And so what has worked to establish our species could be our undoing if we continue to deny the consequences of unrealistic approaches to everything from personal health to financial risk-taking to climate change. On the other hand reality-denial affords us many valuable attributes, such as optimism, confidence, and courage in the face of long odds. Presented in homage to Brower's original thinking, DENIAL offers a powerful warning about the dangers inherent in our remarkable ability to ignore reality-a gift that will either lead to our downfall, or continue to be our greatest asset.

Evolution And Progress In Democracies

Author: Johann Götschl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402000638
Size: 15.75 MB
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Evolution And Progress In Democracies from the Author: Johann Götschl. In a ground-breaking series of articles, one of them written by a Nobel Laureate, this volume demonstrates the evolutionary dynamic and the transformation of today's democratic societies into scientific-democratic societies. It highlights the progress of modeling individual and societal evaluation by neo-Bayesian utility theory. It shows how social learning and collective opinion formation work, and how democracies cope with randomness caused by randomizers. Nonlinear `evolution equations' and serial stochastic matrices of evolutionary game theory allow us to optimally compute possible serial evolutionary solutions of societal conflicts. But in democracies progress can be defined as any positive, gradual, innovative and creative change of culturally used, transmitted and stored mentifacts (models, theories), sociofacts (customs, opinions), artifacts and technifacts, within and across generations. The most important changes are caused, besides randomness, by conflict solutions and their realizations by citizens who follow democratic laws. These laws correspond to the extended Pareto principle, a supreme, socioethical democratic rule. According to this principle, progress is any increase in the individual and collective welfare which is achieved during any evolutionary progress. Central to evolutionary modeling is the criterion of the empirical realization of computed solutions. Applied to serial conflict solutions (decisions), evolutionary trajectories are formed; they become the most influential causal attractors of the channeling of societal evolution. Democratic constitutions, legal systems etc., store all advantageous, present and past, adaptive, competitive, cooperative and collective solutions and their rules; they have been accepted by majority votes. Societal laws are codes of statutes (default or statistical rules), and they serve to optimally solve societal conflicts, in analogy to game theoretical models or to statistical decision theory. Such solutions become necessary when we face harmful or advantageous random events always lurking at the edge of societal and external chaos. The evolutionary theory of societal evolution in democracies presents a new type of stochastic theory; it is based on default rules and stresses realization. The rules represent the change of our democracies into information, science and technology-based societies; they will revolutionize social sciences, especially economics. Their methods have already found their way into neural brain physiology and research into intelligence. In this book, neural activity and the creativity of human thinking are no longer regarded as linear-deductive. Only evolutive nonlinear thinking can include multiple causal choices by many individuals and the risks of internal and external randomness; this serves the increasing welfare of all individuals and society as a whole. Evolution and Progress in Democracies is relevant for social scientists, economists, evolution theorists, statisticians, philosophers, philosophers of science, and interdisciplinary researchers.

The Origin Of Consciousness In The Breakdown Of The Bicameral Mind

Author: Julian Jaynes
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 0547527543
Size: 76.88 MB
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The Origin Of Consciousness In The Breakdown Of The Bicameral Mind from the Author: Julian Jaynes. At the heart of this classic, seminal book is Julian Jaynes's still-controversial thesis that human consciousness did not begin far back in animal evolution but instead is a learned process that came about only three thousand years ago and is still developing. The implications of this revolutionary scientific paradigm extend into virtually every aspect of our psychology, our history and culture, our religion -- and indeed our future.

Metabolic Ecology

Author: Richard M. Sibly
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119968518
Size: 24.43 MB
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Metabolic Ecology from the Author: Richard M. Sibly. One of the first textbooks in this emerging important field of ecology. Most of ecology is about metabolism: the ways that organisms use energy and materials. The energy requirements of individuals – their metabolic rates – vary predictably with their body size and temperature. Ecological interactions are exchanges of energy and materials between organisms and their environments. So metabolic rate affects ecological processes at all levels: individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems. Each chapter focuses on a different process, level of organization, or kind of organism. It lays a conceptual foundation and presents empirical examples. Together, the chapters provide an integrated framework that holds the promise for a unified theory of ecology. The book is intended to be accessible to upper-level undergraduate, and graduate students, but also of interest to senior scientists. Its easy-to-read chapters and clear illustrations can be used in lecture and seminar courses. Together they make for an authoritative treatment that will inspire future generations to study metabolic ecology.

The Creation Of Sensation And The Evolution Of Consciousness

Author: E T Mullin
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 0595468519
Size: 39.16 MB
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The Creation Of Sensation And The Evolution Of Consciousness from the Author: E T Mullin. Too many people have little regard for their lives, as though they consider it out of their hands and beyond control. Should we just absorb the slings and arrows, or should we look for truth and how to cope with it? There is nothing more crucial to the life of an organism than its nervous system. It is the source of all sensation, action, and motivation. In short, it is the mechanism that sustains life. Sensation is the nervous system's communications facility; it monitors all incoming events that impact the body and directs them to the brain where they can be analyzed and acted upon. To be precisely understood, the brain communicates in just one language-the language of "sensation". Universally used throughout the human nervous system, we see examples of sensation language in its messages to us, such as touch, taste, smell, sound and sight-our five senses. But these are only examples of its extensive use. Sensation began with life, itself, and evolved from meager beginnings into its enormous variations in modern humans. Within all organisms, the occurrence of each sensation corresponds to a unit of consciousness.