Emerging Policy Issues In Synthetic Biology

Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
ISBN: 9264208429
Size: 71.71 MB
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Emerging Policy Issues In Synthetic Biology from the Author: OECD. This book examines policy issues in synthetic biology including R&D funding, company investment, PPP arrangements and innovative financing, infrastructure requirements, education and training, intellectual property (IP), regulation, and public engagement.

Emerging Policy Issues In Synthetic Biology

Publisher: OCDE
ISBN: 9789264208414
Size: 68.70 MB
Format: PDF
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Emerging Policy Issues In Synthetic Biology from the Author: . Synthetic biology is at such an early stage of development that there is no uniform agreement as yet about what it actually is. To some, it represents a natural extension of genetic engineering, and therefore is "business as usual". For others, it is a way to bring mass manufacturing out from the decades of biotechnology research. Currently the discipline is limited by the ability to synthesise DNA cost-effectively but this is a technical barrier that it is anticipated will be overcome. Synthetic biology raises a number of policy issues around R&D funding, company investment, PPP arrangements and innovative financing, infrastructure requirements, education and training, intellectual property (IP), regulation, and public engagement. In preparation for the continuing development and greater use of synthetic biology, some countries have started to prepare synthetic biology technical roadmaps and a global roadmap for the medium term would be an extremely useful policy tool. Technical roadmaps could both identify likely future policy requirements, and be a useful vehicle in public engagement.

Positioning Synthetic Biology To Meet The Challenges Of The 21st Century

Author: Committee on Science, Technology, and Law
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309225833
Size: 51.38 MB
Format: PDF
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Positioning Synthetic Biology To Meet The Challenges Of The 21st Century from the Author: Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Synthetic biology -- unlike any research discipline that precedes it -- has the potential to bypass the less predictable process of evolution to usher in a new and dynamic way of working with living systems. Ultimately, synthetic biologists hope to design and build engineered biological systems with capabilities that do not exist in natural systems -- capabilities that may ultimately be used for applications in manufacturing, food production, and global health. Importantly, synthetic biology represents an area of science and engineering that raises technical, ethical, regulatory, security, biosafety, intellectual property, and other issues that will be resolved differently in different parts of the world. As a better understanding of the global synthetic biology landscape could lead to tremendous benefits, six academies -- the United Kingdom's Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering, the United States' National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering, and the Chinese Academy of Science and Chinese Academy of Engineering -- organized a series of international symposia on the scientific, technical, and policy issues associated with synthetic biology. Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century summarizes the symposia proceedings.

Synbio And Human Health

Author: Iñigo de Miguel Beriain
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401791961
Size: 10.32 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Synbio And Human Health from the Author: Iñigo de Miguel Beriain. Since 2010, the Inter-university chair in law and the Human Genome has been involved in an EU 7th Framework Programme funded Project called Sybhel, leading work package 5. The aim of this work package was to face the issues related to synthetic biology and intellectual property rights. In these years, the Chair organized two international workshops devoted to this topic, collecting a number of high level unpublished papers redacted by some of the most prominent experts in this field worldwide, including Stephen Maurer, Joachim Henkel, Ingrid Schneider, etc. We consider that it would be extremely interesting to have them all gathered in a unique contributed volume, which would be the first book exclusively dedicated to analyze the implications that Synbio may involve in what refers to the currently existing intellectual property rights system.

Intellectual Property And Emerging Technologies

Author: Matthew Rimmer
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1781001189
Size: 76.68 MB
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Intellectual Property And Emerging Technologies from the Author: Matthew Rimmer. This unique and comprehensive collection investigates the challenges posed to intellectual property by recent paradigm shifts in biology. It explores the legal ramifications of emerging technologies, such as genomics, synthetic biology, stem cell research, nanotechnology, and biodiscovery. Extensive contributions examine recent controversial court decisions in patent law such as Bilski v. Kappos, and the litigation over Myriad's patents in respect of BRCA1 and BRCA2 while other papers explore sui generis fields, such as access to genetic resources, plant breeders' rights, and traditional knowledge. The collection considers the potential and the risks of the new biology for global challenges such as access to health-care, the protection of the environment and biodiversity, climate change, and food security. It also considers Big Science projects such as biobanks, the 1000 Genomes Project, and the Doomsday Vault. The inter-disciplinary research brings together the work of scholars from Australia, Canada, Europe, the UK and the US and involves not only legal analysis of case law and policy developments, but also historical, comparative, sociological, and ethical methodologies. Intellectual Property and Emerging Technologies will appeal to policy-makers, legal practitioners, business managers, inventors, scientists and researchers.

Enhanced Regulation Of Synthetic Biology

Author: Alison Skye McLennan
Size: 10.35 MB
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Enhanced Regulation Of Synthetic Biology from the Author: Alison Skye McLennan. The accelerating pace of scientific research and uncertainties about the risks and benefits of emerging technologies create complex challenges for regulation. These include whether a new technology requires a new regulatory approach, managing the time lag between science and law, and facilitating beneficial innovation. This multidisciplinary thesis explores the interplay between regulation and emerging technologies by analysing the challenges posed by synthetic biology, a burgeoning new field. Synthetic biology promises benefits such as greener energy and improved medical treatments, but also poses great risks including damage to the environment, bioterrorism, and harm arising from 'do-it-yourself biology'. Vast amounts of public and private funding are being invested in synthetic biology research. This thesis lays the groundwork for bespoke regulation of synthetic biology. The debate surrounding synthetic biology has tended to focus on scientific, sociological and political questions. Legal discussion has tended to consider the individual regulatory issues in isolation. A broader approach is taken here, exploring the extent to which the regulatory challenges posed by synthetic biology are distinctive. This question is addressed using legal analysis buttressed by a critical examination of the science of synthetic biology and its potential impacts. The major regulatory challenges lie in very different fields. They encompass various issues of risk as well as issues of intellectual property. This thesis analyses whether synthetic biology can be regulated within existing regulatory structures or whether new mechanisms are needed. A starting premise is that the role of regulation in relation to emerging technology includes both facilitating beneficial innovation and minimising potential harms, as argued by Roger Brownsword, Morag Goodwin and Han Somsen. The investigation focuses on the United States, the most prominent jurisdiction in synthetic biology research and policy debate. The recommendations of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues are critically analysed. This thesis considers strategies for managing risks to the environment in light of legal approaches to scientific uncertainty and the differences between synthetic biology and earlier biotechnologies. The emerging community of do-it-yourself biologists is investigated to elucidate the challenges posed. Regulatory approaches to synthetic biology's security risks are analysed with reference to new scientific capabilities, the existing regulatory environment and self-regulation. The potential for intellectual property to impede innovation in synthetic biology is considered in light of recent case law and analysis of the examination of a sample of synthetic biology patent applications. This research also investigates the ability of a unique synthetic biology 'commons' to promote innovation. This thesis argues that synthetic biology poses particular regulatory challenges. These arise from the distinctiveness of its science - including the use of engineering principles and the development of new tools - its novel communities of scientists and amateur scientists, and the uncertainty surrounding its risks. This research identifies the key regulatory changes needed and considers the creation of a new institution for enhanced regulation of synthetic biology, to manage risk and promote desirable innovation.

The Science And Applications Of Synthetic And Systems Biology

Author: Forum on Microbial Threats
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030921940X
Size: 76.97 MB
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The Science And Applications Of Synthetic And Systems Biology from the Author: Forum on Microbial Threats. Many potential applications of synthetic and systems biology are relevant to the challenges associated with the detection, surveillance, and responses to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. On March 14 and 15, 2011, the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop in Washington, DC, to explore the current state of the science of synthetic biology, including its dependency on systems biology; discussed the different approaches that scientists are taking to engineer, or reengineer, biological systems; and discussed how the tools and approaches of synthetic and systems biology were being applied to mitigate the risks associated with emerging infectious diseases. The Science and Applications of Synthetic and Systems Biology is organized into sections as a topic-by-topic distillation of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. Its purpose is to present information from relevant experience, to delineate a range of pivotal issues and their respective challenges, and to offer differing perspectives on the topic as discussed and described by the workshop participants. This report also includes a collection of individually authored papers and commentary.

Synthetic Biology And Morality

Author: Gregory E. Kaebnick
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262519593
Size: 41.28 MB
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Synthetic Biology And Morality from the Author: Gregory E. Kaebnick. A range of views on the morality of synthetic biology and its place in public policy and political discourse.

Systems And Synthetic Biology

Author: Vikram Singh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401795142
Size: 37.69 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Systems And Synthetic Biology from the Author: Vikram Singh. This textbook has been conceptualized to provide a detailed description of the various aspects of Systems and Synthetic Biology, keeping the requirements of M.Sc. and Ph.D. students in mind. Also, it is hoped that this book will mentor young scientists who are willing to contribute to this area but do not know from where to begin. The book has been divided into two sections. The first section will deal with systems biology – in terms of the foundational understanding, highlighting issues in biological complexity, methods of analysis and various aspects of modelling. The second section deals with the engineering concepts, design strategies of the biological systems ranging from simple DNA/RNA fragments, switches and oscillators, molecular pathways to a complete synthetic cell will be described. Finally, the book will offer expert opinions in legal, safety, security and social issues to present a well-balanced information both for students and scientists.

Synthetic Biology A Primer

Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783268816
Size: 52.25 MB
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Synthetic Biology A Primer from the Author: . Synthetic Biology — A Primer (Revised Edition) presents an updated overview of the field of synthetic biology and the foundational concepts on which it is built. This revised edition includes new literature references, working and updated URL links, plus some new figures and text where progress in the field has been made. The book introduces readers to fundamental concepts in molecular biology and engineering and then explores the two major themes for synthetic biology, namely 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' engineering approaches. 'Top-down' engineering uses a conceptual framework of systematic design and engineering principles focused around the Design-Build-Test cycle and mathematical modelling. The 'bottom-up' approach involves the design and building of synthetic protocells using basic chemical and biochemical building blocks from scratch exploring the fundamental basis of living systems. Examples of cutting-edge applications designed using synthetic biology principles are presented, including: the production of novel, microbial synthesis of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicalsthe design and implementation of biosensors to detect infections and environmental waste. The book also describes the Internationally Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition, which brings together students and young researchers from around the world to carry out summer projects in synthetic biology. Finally, the primer includes a chapter on the ethical, legal and societal issues surrounding synthetic biology, illustrating the integration of social sciences into synthetic biology research. Final year undergraduates, postgraduates and established researchers interested in learning about the interdisciplinary field of synthetic biology will benefit from this up-to-date primer on synthetic biology. Contents:List of ContributorsPrefaceIntroduction to BiologyBasic Concepts in Engineering BiologyFoundational TechnologiesMinimal Cells and Synthetic LifeParts, Devices and SystemsModelling Synthetic Biology SystemsApplications of Designed Biological SystemsiGEMThe Societal Impact of Synthetic BiologyAppendices:Proforma of Common Laboratory TechniquesGlossaryIndex Readership: Students, professionals, researchers in biotechnology and bioengineering. Keywords:Synthetic Biology;Engineering Principles;Biosociety;Biological Engineering;BiotechnologyKey Features:The book is written in a way that is accessible to students and researchers from different disciplinesThe authors are part of the internationally recognised Centre for Synthetic Biology and Innovation and are among the leaders in this field