Conscientious Objectors Of The Second World War

Author: Ann Kramer
Publisher: Pen and Sword
ISBN: 1844681181
Size: 80.68 MB
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Conscientious Objectors Of The Second World War from the Author: Ann Kramer. Even today, most histories of the world wars focus on those who fought. Those who refused to fight are usually overlooked, or just mentioned in passing, sometimes in a very dismissive manner. However, during the First World War, 16,000 men in Britain refused conscription: they believed it was wrong to take up arms and kill. Known as conscientious objectors they were humiliated, abused and imprisoned for their stand. More than 70 died because of brutal treatment. Twenty years later, during the Second World War, there were more than 60,000 conscientious objectors in Britain. They were treated more humanely but even so, many people neither understood nor sympathized with their stand. A Determined Resistance: Conscientious Objectors of the First World War and Refusing to Fight: Conscientious Objectors of the Second World War tell the stories of these remarkable men – and women – who bravely took a stand against war and refused to be conscripted. The books ask who the conscientious objectors were, what reasons they gave for refusing to fight and how they were treated. They look at the impact of conscientious objectors and ask how their actions should be viewed today. To bring this fascinating subject to life, author Ann Kramer has used extensive prime sources such as interviews, letters, diaries, memoirs, and contemporary newspapers. She also places the experiences of conscientious objectors into the wider context of a national and international peace and anti-war movement. The focus is mainly on Britain but will also include material on pacifists, war resisters and conscientious objectors elsewhere in the warring world, such as the United States, Canada, Australia, and Germany.

General Lewis B Hershey And Conscientious Objection During World War Ii

Author: Nicholas A. Krehbiel
Publisher: University of Missouri Press
ISBN: 0826272622
Size: 17.99 MB
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General Lewis B Hershey And Conscientious Objection During World War Ii from the Author: Nicholas A. Krehbiel. During World War II, the United States drafted 10.1 million men to serve in the military. Of that number, 52,000 were conscientious objectors, and 12,000 objected to noncombatant military service. Those 12,000 men served the country in Civilian Public Service, the program initiated by General Lewis Blaine Hershey, the director of Selective Service from 1941 to1970. Despite his success with this program, much of Hershey’s work on behalf of conscientious objectors has been overlooked due to his later role in the draft during the Vietnam War. Seeking to correct these omissions in history, Nicholas A. Krehbiel provides the most comprehensive and well-rounded examination to date of General Hershey’s work as the developer and protector of alternative service programs for conscientious objectors. Hershey, whose Selective Service career spanned three major wars and six presidential administrations, came from a background with a tolerance for pacifism. He served in the National Guard and later served in both World War I and the interwar army. A lifelong military professional, he believed in the concept of the citizen soldier—the civilian who responded to the duty of service when called upon. Yet embedded in that idea was his intrinsic belief in the American right to religious freedom and his notion that religious minorities must be protected. What to do with conscientious objectors has puzzled the United States throughout its history, and prior to World War II, there was no unified system for conscientious objectors. The Selective Service Act of 1917 only allowed conscientious objection from specific peace sects, and it had no provisions for public service. In action, this translated to poor treatment of conscientious objectors in military prisons and camps during World War I. In response to demands by the Historic Peace Churches (the Brethren, Mennonites, and the Society of Friends) and other pacifist groups, the government altered language in the Selective Service Act of 1940, stating that conscientious objectors should be assigned to noncombatant service in the military but, if opposed to that, would be assigned to “work of national importance under civilian direction.” Under the direction of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and with the cooperation of the Historic Peace Churches, Hershey helped to develop Civilian Public Service in 1941, a program that placed conscientious objectors in soil conservation and forestry work camps, with the option of moving into detached services as farm laborers, scientific test subjects, and caregivers, janitors, and cooks at mental hospitals. Although the Civilian Public Service program only lasted until 1947, alternative service was required for all conscientious objectors until the end of the draft in 1973. Krehbiel delves into the issues of minority rights versus mandatory military service and presents General Hershey’s pivotal role in the history of conscientious objection and conscription in American history. Archival research from both Historic Peace Churches and the Selective Service makes General Lewis B. Hershey and Conscientious Objection during World War II the definitive book on this subject.

The Biology Of Human Starvation

Author: University of Minnesota. Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 35.34 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 3399
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The Biology Of Human Starvation from the Author: University of Minnesota. Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene. Describes what is called The Minnesota Experiment, carried out with the assistence of the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota.

Conscientious Objectors Of The Second World War

Author: Ann Kramer
Publisher: Pen and Sword
ISBN: 1844681181
Size: 28.80 MB
Format: PDF
View: 6989
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Conscientious Objectors Of The Second World War from the Author: Ann Kramer. Even today, most histories of the world wars focus on those who fought. Those who refused to fight are usually overlooked, or just mentioned in passing, sometimes in a very dismissive manner. However, during the First World War, 16,000 men in Britain refused conscription: they believed it was wrong to take up arms and kill. Known as conscientious objectors they were humiliated, abused and imprisoned for their stand. More than 70 died because of brutal treatment. Twenty years later, during the Second World War, there were more than 60,000 conscientious objectors in Britain. They were treated more humanely but even so, many people neither understood nor sympathized with their stand. A Determined Resistance: Conscientious Objectors of the First World War and Refusing to Fight: Conscientious Objectors of the Second World War tell the stories of these remarkable men – and women – who bravely took a stand against war and refused to be conscripted. The books ask who the conscientious objectors were, what reasons they gave for refusing to fight and how they were treated. They look at the impact of conscientious objectors and ask how their actions should be viewed today. To bring this fascinating subject to life, author Ann Kramer has used extensive prime sources such as interviews, letters, diaries, memoirs, and contemporary newspapers. She also places the experiences of conscientious objectors into the wider context of a national and international peace and anti-war movement. The focus is mainly on Britain but will also include material on pacifists, war resisters and conscientious objectors elsewhere in the warring world, such as the United States, Canada, Australia, and Germany.

World War Ii

Author: Carl J. Schneider
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
ISBN: 1438108907
Size: 36.65 MB
Format: PDF
View: 1749
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World War Ii from the Author: Carl J. Schneider. Firsthand accounts and brief biographies describe how Americans were affected by the events surrounding World War II.

Women Against The Good War

Author: Rachel Waltner Goossen
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 9780807846728
Size: 69.22 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 7174
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Women Against The Good War from the Author: Rachel Waltner Goossen. During World War II, more than 12,000 male conscientious objectors seeking alternatives to military service entered Civilian Public Service to do forestry, soil conservation, or other 'work of national importance.' But this government-sponsored, church-su

Conscientious Objectors And The Second World War

Author: Cynthia Eller
Publisher: Praeger Publishers
ISBN:
Size: 77.95 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Conscientious Objectors And The Second World War from the Author: Cynthia Eller. Drawing largely on interviews with 60 World War II conscientious objectors, this study provides an oral history of the difficulties encountered as a conscientious objector in the "Last Good War."

The New Conscientious Objection

Author: Charles C. Moskos
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195359930
Size: 61.86 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The New Conscientious Objection from the Author: Charles C. Moskos. Although conscientious objection is a long-standing phenomenon, it has only recently become a major factor affecting armed forces and society. The only comprehensive, comparative scholarly study of conscientious objection to military service, this book examines the history of the practice in the Western world and state policies that have grown up in response to it. It shows how the contemporary refusal to bear arms is likely to be secular and widespread rather than religious and marginal, now including service people (as seen in the 1991 War in the Persian Gulf) as well as conscription resisters. No account of civil-military relations or peace movements in advanced industrial countries is complete without reference to conscientious objection, and this book will be the standard text on the subject.

World War Ii In Literature For Youth

Author: Patricia Hachten Wee
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
ISBN: 9780810853010
Size: 11.91 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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World War Ii In Literature For Youth from the Author: Patricia Hachten Wee. This comprehensive volume provides a wealth of information with annotated listings of more than 3,500 titles—a broad sampling of books on the war years 1939-1945. Includes both fiction and nonfiction works about all aspects of the war. Professional resources for educators aligned to the educational standards for social studies; technical references; periodicals and electronic resources; a directory of WWII museums, memorials, and other institutions; and topics for exploration complement this excellent library and classroom resource.