Co Operative Innovations In China And The West

Author: C. Gijselinckx
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137277289
Size: 50.52 MB
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Co Operative Innovations In China And The West from the Author: C. Gijselinckx. This book aims to contribute to our understanding of recent changes in Chinese and Western cooperatives. It will provide a variety of audiences with relevant and useful information for further co-operative development, mutual understanding and cooperation.

The Oxford Handbook Of Mutual Co Operative And Co Owned Business

Author: Jonathan Michie
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191507989
Size: 74.40 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Oxford Handbook Of Mutual Co Operative And Co Owned Business from the Author: Jonathan Michie. The Oxford Handbook of Mutuals and Co-Owned Business investigates all types of 'member owned' organizations, whether consumer co-operatives, agricultural and producer co-operatives, worker co-operatives, mutual building societies, friendly societies, credit unions, solidarity organizations, mutual insurance companies, or employee-owned companies. Such organizations can be owned by their consumers, the producers, or the employees - whether through single-stakeholder or multi-stakeholder ownership. This complex set of organizations is named differently across countries: from 'mutual' in the UK, to 'solidarity cooperatives' in Latin America. In some countries, such organizations are not even officially recognized and thus lack a specific denomination. For the sake of clarity, this Handbook will refer to member-owned organizations to encompass the variety of non-investor-owned organizations, and in the national case study chapters the terms used will be those most widely employed in that country. These alternative corporate forms have emerged in a variety of economic sectors in almost all advanced economies since the time of the industrial revolution and the development of capitalism, through the subsequent creation and dominance of the limited liability company. Until recently, these organizations were generally regarded as a rather marginal component of the economy. However, over the past few years, member-owned organizations have come to be seen in some countries, at least, as potentially attractive in light of their ability to tackle various economic and social concerns, and their relative resilience during the financial and economic crises of 2007-2013.

International Conference On Economics And Management Engineering Iceme2014

Author:
Publisher: DEStech Publications, Inc
ISBN: 1605952001
Size: 40.72 MB
Format: PDF
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International Conference On Economics And Management Engineering Iceme2014 from the Author: . The 2014 International Conference on Economics and Management Engineering (ICEME2014) is held in Hangzhou, China from October 18–19, 2014. The conference aims to provide an excellent international academic forum for all the researchers, practitioner, students and teachers in related fields to share their knowledge and results in theory, methodology and application on economics, management science and management engineering. ICEME2014 features unique mixed topics of Economics, Management Science, Management Engineering and other related ones. ICEME2014 proceeding tends to collect the most up-to-date, comprehensive, and worldwide state-of-art knowledge on economics, management science and management engineering. All the accepted papers have been submitted to strict peer-review by 2–4 expert referees, and selected based on originality, significance and clarity for the purpose of the conference. The conference program is extremely rich, profound and featuring high-impact presentations of selected papers and additional late-breaking contributions. We sincerely hope that the conference would not only show the participants a broad overview of the latest research results on related fields, but also provide them with a significant platform for academic connection and exchange.

Dna Replication Origins In Microbial Genomes

Author: Feng Gao
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889197794
Size: 32.74 MB
Format: PDF
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Dna Replication Origins In Microbial Genomes from the Author: Feng Gao. DNA replication, a central event for cell proliferation, is the basis of biological inheritance. Complete and accurate DNA replication is integral to the maintenance of the genetic integrity of organisms. In all three domains of life, DNA replication begins at replication origins. In bacteria, replication typically initiates from a single replication origin (oriC), which contains several DnaA boxes and the AT-rich DNA unwinding element (DUE). In eukaryotic genomes, replication initiates from significantly more replication origins, activated simultaneously at a specific time. For eukaryotic organisms, replication origins are best characterized in the unicellular eukaryote budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The budding yeast origins contain an essential sequence element called the ARS (autonomously replicating sequence), while the fission yeast origins consist of AT-rich sequences. Within the archaeal domain, the multiple replication origins have been identified by a predict-and-verify approach in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus. The basic structure of replication origins is conserved among archaea, typically including an AT-rich unwinding region flanked by several short repetitive DNA sequences, known as origin recognition boxes (ORBs). It appears that archaea have a simplified version of the eukaryotic replication apparatus, which has led to considerable interest in the archaeal machinery as a model of that in eukaryotes. The research on replication origins is important not only in providing insights into the structure and function of the replication origins but also in understanding the regulatory mechanisms of the initiation step in DNA replication. Therefore, intensive studies have been carried out in the last two decades. The pioneer work to identify bacterial oriCs in silico is the GC-skew analysis. Later, a method of cumulative GC skew without sliding windows was proposed to give better resolution. Meanwhile, an oligomer-skew method was also proposed to predict oriC regions in bacterial genomes. As a unique representation of a DNA sequence, the Z-curve method has been proved to be an accurate and effective approach to predict bacterial and archaeal replication origins. Budding yeast origins have been predicted by Oriscan using similarity to the characterized ones, while the fission yeast origins have been identified initially from AT content calculation. In comparison with the in silico analysis, the experimental methods are time-consuming and labor-intensive, but convincing and reliable. To identify microbial replication origins in vivo or in vitro, a number of experimental methods have been used including construction of replicative oriC plasmids, microarray-based or high-throughput sequencing-based marker frequency analysis, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis and replication initiation point mapping (RIP mapping). The recent genome-wide approaches to identify and characterize replication origin locations have boosted the number of mapped yeast replication origins. In addition, the availability of increasing complete microbial genomes and emerging approaches has created challenges and opportunities for identification of their replication origins in silico, as well as in vivo and in vitro. The Frontiers in Microbiology Research Topic on DNA replication origins in microbial genomes is devoted to address the issues mentioned above, and aims to provide a comprehensive overview of current research in this field.

The Singularity Of Western Innovation

Author: Leonard Dudley
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137398221
Size: 13.81 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Singularity Of Western Innovation from the Author: Leonard Dudley. This book highlights the contribution of language standardization to the economic rise of the West between 1600 and 1860. Previous studies have been unable to explain why during this period almost all industrial innovation was confined to small areas around the main cultural centers of three Western states – Britain, France, and the United states. This book argues that Western Europe and its offshoots were the only Eurasian societies able to apply typography cheaply to their writing systems. The emergence in the West of large networks of people able to communicate in standardized languages made possible the breakthroughs of the Industrial Revolution. Military byproducts of three “macro-innovations”– the steam engine, machine tools, and interchangeable parts – then constituted the West’s toolbox for empire. The book will appeal to readers seeking to explain how the West attained its unprecedented advance over Asia in the nineteenth century, and why this lead has since proved temporary.

Conflict And Innovation

Author: Leo Douw
Publisher: Brill Academic Pub
ISBN: 9789004151888
Size: 63.45 MB
Format: PDF
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Conflict And Innovation from the Author: Leo Douw. This book features China s newly emergent transnational management culture. It uses established and new methodologies to analyze how different types of Sino-foreign joint enterprises manage cultural differences and negotiate strategies that contain conflicts and frustrations. In doing so, the book suggests alternative pathways toward innovative business management in China."

Issues In Pharmacology Pharmacy Drug Research And Drug Innovation 2011 Edition

Author:
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1464963444
Size: 31.81 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Issues In Pharmacology Pharmacy Drug Research And Drug Innovation 2011 Edition from the Author: . Issues in Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation. The editors have built Issues in Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Chinese Cooperative Harmonious Democracy

Author: Zongchao Peng
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 131747984X
Size: 23.52 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Chinese Cooperative Harmonious Democracy from the Author: Zongchao Peng. After several decades of reform and opening up, China has come to a critical period of transformation and development. How to improve the development strategies to effectively promote China's democratic politics has once again attracted the world's attention. This book compares the commons and differences between western and Chinese theories and practices of democracy model, and proposes a new democracy model for China's political reform — "cooperative-harmonious democracy". Absorbing the core values of democracy, this model draws on Chinese traditional "harmony and cooperation" and "people-oriented" thought, as well as modern cooperative game theory. More importantly, it adopts the new model to analyse some present practice cases in China, involving intra-party democracy, electoral democracy, and deliberative democracy. This book is a valuable theoretical innovation and a significant achievement in promoting the interdisciplinary research of political science and public management. It strategically reflects on how to promote the development of cooperative-harmonious democracy from the perspective of high-level design. The policy suggestions it proposed will be a valuable reference for policy-makers.

Two Revolutions

Author: Pauline B. Keating
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804728256
Size: 65.87 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Two Revolutions from the Author: Pauline B. Keating. This book argues that the "Yan'an Way," long celebrated by the Chinese Communist Party as the foundation and model for its success, was a product of quite special circumstances that were not replicable in most other parts of China.