Church And State In Tonga

Author: Sione Latukefu
Publisher: University of Queensland Press
ISBN: 1921902353
Size: 37.48 MB
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Church And State In Tonga from the Author: Sione Latukefu. First published in 1974, Church and State in Tonga is a classic study of the formative period of modern Tongan history. The years covered are from the re-establishment of the Wesleyan Methodist mission in the 1820s until the promulgation of the Tongan constitution in 1875. The missionaries assumed the role of political advisors, but by the 1850s the missionary monopoly was undermined and what author Sione Latukefu calls a "marriage of convenience" and an "alliance" began. The king became selective in the advice he accepted and took his own initiatives. Much of the book deals with the development of kingship and the emergence of written codes of law and the Constitution. The book is dedicated to Queen Salote Tupou III who passed the traditions of the royal family to Latukefu, determined to impart her wealth of knowledge of the Tongan traditional past. Church and State in Tonga was the first substantial study by a Tongan of the history of the Tongan monarchy and government, a rich documentary study reinforced by knowledge of local language, customs, and traditions.

The State And The Church

Author: Heneli Taliai Niumeitolu
Size: 43.44 MB
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The State And The Church from the Author: Heneli Taliai Niumeitolu. This dissertation examines the impact of 'Tongan culture' as represented by those with power in the Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga (FWC). The word "free" in the name of a church usually denotes the desire to be independent of the State or any other outside control but in this context it was often the contrary. From the outset of the Wesleyan Mission in 1826, the chiefs who embodied and controlled Tonga, welcomed the early European explorers yet with the twin underlying aims of gaining benefits while simultaneously maintaining their supremacy. The dissertation argues that the outcome leaves the FWC in dire need of inculturation, with Gospel challenging 'Culture.' Historical and anthropological approaches are used to substantiate this claim. Encouraged by Captain Cook's report the missionaries arrived and were welcomed by the chiefs. The conversion of the powerful Taufa'ahau was pivotal to the spread of the Wesleyan Mission yet this marriage of convenience came at a cost because Taufa'ahau had his own agenda of what a church should be. This study assesses Tongan demeanour prior to the arrival of Europeans and in the early years of settlement, especially the response to Cook in 1773, 74, 77 which set the tone for later interaction. It then looks at how Tongan ways have moulded the FWC since the beginning of the Wesleyan Mission in 1826 by relying on data from archives, interviews, and journals of early explorers and missionaries. This dissertation argues that what is widely accepted as the Tongan way of life, which the FWC represents as the Gospel, is essentially the interest of the elite with power and wealth. From the start the chiefs were not only interested in the Wesleyan Mission for religious but also for political reasons; indeed they made and even still make no such separation. Because of this collusion of the FWC and the state, the FWC is recognized as the supporter of the status quo, its ministers being part of the elite system of social and spiritual control. The ensuing confusion between the church, Christ, and culture leads to a neglect of the poor and marginal and a failure to speak prophetically to the elite.

House Girls Remember

Author: Margaret Rodman
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN: 9780824818562
Size: 13.38 MB
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House Girls Remember from the Author: Margaret Rodman. Of all the Pacific Islands nations only Tonga has retained a degree of lasting political independence. It was Tupou I, the first king of Tonga, who established an internationally recognised nation. A shrewd and determined politician, he enlisted the aid of a rebellious Wesleyan missionary. Noel Rutherford's book is an account of the life and times of this gruff, bewhiskered minister from London's East End, the Reverend Shirley Baker. A curious character often at odds with his peers, Baker's achievements, whether motivated by altruism or self-preservation, contributed greatly to the Tonga we know today.

Birthing In The Pacific

Author: Vicki Lukere
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN: 9780824824846
Size: 76.77 MB
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Birthing In The Pacific from the Author: Vicki Lukere. This collection explores birthing in the Pacific against the background of debates about tradition and modernity. A wide-ranging introduction and conclusion, together with case studies from Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, and Tonga, show how simple contrasts between traditional and modern practices, technocratic and organic models of childbirth, indigenous and foreign approaches, and notions of before and after can be potent but problematic. The difficulties entailed confront public health programs concerned with practical issues of infant and maternal survival in developing countries as well as scholarly analyses of birthing in cross-cultural contexts. The introduction analyzes central concepts and themes: questions of survival, safety, and well-being; the significance of postures, practices, and sites; the role of midwives, traditional birth attendants, and nurses; and the role of men in birthing and reproduction. Contributors--four anthropologists, a historian, and a community health worker--offer insights into the ways mothers, midwives, and nurses relate the traditional and the modern, and how ideas of tradition and modernity have shaped representations of Pacific childbirth. The conclusion provides researchers with a guide to relevant literature from several disciplines. As a whole the collection warns against either a celebration of emancipation through biomedicine or a recuperative romance about women's past powers in reproduction. Contributors: Ruta Fiti-Sinclair, Margaret Jolly, Vicki Lukere, Shelley Mallett, Helen Morton, Christine Salomon.

Consequences Of Contact

Author: Miki Makihara
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199724536
Size: 39.40 MB
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Consequences Of Contact from the Author: Miki Makihara. The Pacific is historically an area of enormous linguistic diversity, where talk figures as a central component of social life. Pacific communities also represent diverse contact zones, where between indigenous and introduced institutions and ideas; between local actors and outsiders; and involving different lingua franca, colonial, and local language varieties. Contact between colonial and post-colonial governments, religious institutions, and indigenous communities has spurred profound social change, irrevocably transforming linguistic ideologies and practices. Drawing on ethnographic and linguistic analyses, this edited volume examines situations of intertwined linguistic and cultural change unfolding in specific Pacific locations in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Its overarching concern is with the multiple ways that processes of historical change have shaped and been shaped by linguistic ideologies reflexive sensibilities about languages and language useheld by Pacific peoples and other agents of change. The essays demonstrate that language and linguistic practices are linked to changing consciousness of self and community through notions of agency, morality, affect, authority, and authenticity. In times of cultural contact, communities often experience language change at an accelerated rate. This is particularly so in small-scale communities where innovations and continuity routinely depend on the imagination, creativity, and charisma of fewer individuals. The essays in this volume provide evidence of this potential and a record of their voices, as they document new types of local actors, e.g., pastors, Bible translators, teachers, political activists, spirit mediums, and tour guides, some of whom introduce, innovate, legitimate, or resist new ideas and ways to express them through language. Drawing on and transforming metalinguistic concepts, local actors (re)shape language, reproducing and changing the communicative economy. In the process, they cultivate new cultural conceptions of language, for example, as a medium for communicating religious knowledge and political authority, and for constructing social boundaries and transforming relationships of domination.


Author: Martin Daly
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN: 0824831969
Size: 24.85 MB
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Tonga from the Author: Martin Daly. Praise for the first edition: Tonga is unique among bibliographies in its perception and understanding, and in its affection for Tonga and its people. . . . Daly s work stands on exceptionally sound foundations. . . . His summaries are excellent, indeed, but Daly writes always with the authority of first-hand knowledge, with a keen eye for the essential, and the ability to interpret and clarify obscurities. . . . A trustworthy introduction to Tonga in all its diversity, a splendid point de depart for all, layman or scholar, needing a reliable guide to the essential literature about this remarkable Polynesian kingdom. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies The book is so arranged that it is easy to locate any of the items listed. . . . I found myself spending pleasant hours perusing Daly s comments on the different publications.. . . I hope the rumor of a second, revised edition of this bibliography is true. Journal of the Polynesian Society Tonga is a fascinating and subtle combination of a traditional Polynesian kingdom the only one to survive the impact of colonization in the nineteenth century and remain independent and a thoroughly Christian country. This comprehensive bibliography is a selective guide to the most significant and accessible English-language books, papers, and articles on every aspect of the kingdom s history, culture, arts, politics, environment, and economy. It is a much updated and expanded edition of the original version that was published in 1999 as part of the World Bibliographical Series, with the addition of more than 200 new entries. Each of the approximately 600 described and annotated items is organized under broad subject headings, and indexed by author, title, and subject. In addition and new to this edition all known Ph.D. theses, although not annotated, are shown within their appropriate subject categories and indexed. Also new is a section on the most important Tonga-related websites. A general introduction describes the Tongan kingdom, its history and society, and its current situation. Tonga: A New Bibliography will be an invaluable resource for anyone with a serious interest in Tonga and an indispensable volume for academic libraries, reference collections, and policy makers focused on the Pacific islands. "

The Cambridge History Of The Pacific Islanders

Author: Donald Denoon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521003544
Size: 24.71 MB
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The Cambridge History Of The Pacific Islanders from the Author: Donald Denoon. "The Cambridge History of the Pacific Islanders makes a landmark contribution to our understanding of this expansive and diverse region. Donald Denoon has assembled an outstanding team of scholars to produce a history that is as lively and provocative asit is rigorous and comprehensive. While it acknowledges the great diversity of Pacific peoples' cultures and experiences, the book looks for common patterns and related themes, presenting them in an insightful and innovative way."--BOOK JACKET.

Manifestations Of Mana

Author: Paul van der Grijp
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
ISBN: 3643904967
Size: 38.97 MB
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Manifestations Of Mana from the Author: Paul van der Grijp. This book explores the role of mana in past and present configurations of chiefly power in the Pacific. Chiefs are often seen as transitional figures between traditional (tribal or feudal) and modern forms of leadership, the latter characterized by rationality and the nation-state with its accompanying bureaucracy. Today, the political arena in the Pacific, although occupied by presidents, members of parliament and court justices, is still ruled by chiefs supporting their authority by tradition, including the notion of mana. Mana may be defined as divine inspiration or energy that manifests itself in persons, objects, places and natural phenomena. Polynesian chiefs have mana because of their descent from ancient gods. Other key concepts such as asymmetrical ideology, mythical constructions of social reality, and social drama are elaborated and applied to a wide specter of ethnographic examples. The configuration and reconfiguration of Tongan chieftaincy and kingship in this book are analyzed as an extended case study of the gradual, and sometimes shock-like, integration of a Polynes ian culture into a global structure, a nation-state, partly imposed from the outside (missionarization, colonization) but also generated from within including state formation and the recent quest for democracy. Together with other Polynesian examples, this forms a relevant illustration of both continuity and change in the configuration of mana and chieftaincy in processes of globalization in the Pacific.

Religious Freedom In Asia

Author: Edward P. Lipton
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781590333914
Size: 14.41 MB
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Religious Freedom In Asia from the Author: Edward P. Lipton.